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Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease common cause

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Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease common cause

  1. 1. Alzheimer&apos;s and Parkinson&apos;s disease common cause<br />Erick G. Rodríguez<br />Biol.3009<br />
  2. 2. Problem:<br /><ul><li> What causes patients having Alzheimer's disease to exhibit signs of Parkinson's disease and vice versa?</li></li></ul><li>Hipothesis:<br /><ul><li>There is a common cause for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.</li></li></ul><li>Objectives:<br /><ul><li>Find how neurons degenerate in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, consequently leading to a better understanding of a common cause between these two diseases.</li></li></ul><li>Background:<br /><ul><li>Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson’s disease:
  3. 3. The most common progressive neurologic diseases
  4. 4. Irreversible loss of neurons in various areas of the brain
  5. 5. Caused by the accumulation of proteins
  6. 6. Incurable</li></li></ul><li>Alzheimer&apos;s disease<br />
  7. 7. Parkinson&apos;s disease<br /><ul><li>Protein aggregates accumulate, killing the neurons in the midbrain that release dopamine at synapses in the basal nuclei.
  8. 8. Lewybodies and Lewyneurities are made of ubiquitin and α-synuclein.
  9. 9. α-synuclein is found naturally in the brain and controls communication between neurons in the brain</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>visual
  10. 10. auditory systems
  11. 11. eye movement
  12. 12. body movement</li></ul>HOPES. (2004). The HOPES Brain Tutorial. Available: http://www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/basics/braintut/ab3.html. Last accessed 29 Jun 2009.<br />
  13. 13. Alzheimer&apos;s and Parkinson&apos;s Link<br /><ul><li>Many patients have symptoms of both diseases.
  14. 14. EliezerMasliah at the University of California, San Diego
  15. 15. β-amyloidand α-synuclein are active proteins in both diseases
  16. 16. this two proteins work together to create a hybrid protein with a small hole called a nanopore that alters neuronal activity
  17. 17. β-amyloid promote α-synuclein aggregation</li></li></ul><li>Tsigelny I., Crews L., Desplats P., Shaked G., Sharikov Y., Mizuno H., Spencer B., Rockenstein E., Trejo M., Platoshyn O., Yuan J., Masliah E.. (2008). Mechanisms of Hybrid Oligomer Formation in the Pathogenesis of Combined Alzheimer&apos;s and Parkinson&apos;s Diseases. Available: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0003135. Last accessed 27 Jun 2009.<br />
  18. 18. Methodology:<br /><ul><li>Molecular modeling
  19. 19. “In vitro” experimentation to create the hybrid protein
  20. 20. Insert hybrid protein into the brains of live mice
  21. 21. “In vivo” experimentation to see its effects in the mice and compare effects with control mice.</li></li></ul><li>Controls<br /><ul><li>Control will be mice that have Alzheimer’s disease, mice that have Parkinson’s disease and healty mice that doesn’t have any link with this two diseases.
  22. 22. Make post mortem examination of the mice brains
  23. 23. Immunohistochemistry</li></li></ul><li>Future plans:<br /><ul><li>Discover new and better therapies for both diseases.
  24. 24. Find inhibitor for the enzymes that produce β-amyloid and α-synucleinproteins
  25. 25. Discover new tools for diagnosing these diseases</li></li></ul><li>References:<br /><ul><li>Campbell, N. and Reece, J. (2008). Biology. 8th ed. United States: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. 1082-1083.
  26. 26. Tsigelny I., Crews L., Desplats P., Shaked G., Sharikov Y., Mizuno H., Spencer B., Rockenstein E., Trejo M., Platoshyn O., Yuan J., Masliah E.. (2008). Mechanisms of Hybrid Oligomer Formation in the Pathogenesis of Combined Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases. Available: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0003135. Last accessed 27 Jun 2009.</li>

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