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Analects of Confucius


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Trial and Error

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Analects of Confucius

  1. 1. Analects of Confucius By: Rosie Catis and Jenny Rose Deslate
  2. 2. Creation of the text
  3. 3.  The analects was written and compiled within a century after Confucius’ death (d. 473) by Confucius first and second generation pupils.  During Warring state period (476 BC – 221 BC) the text was completed  Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) the book was widely known and transmitted throughout china in a mostly complete form.
  4. 4.  Some scholars have proposed dates as late as 140 BC for the text's compilation.  Liu Xiang (Han Dynasty Scholar) two versions of the Analects :  Lu version contains 20 chapters  Qi version contains 22 chapters, including chapters that are not found in the Lu version  Both versions had in common; the Lu version had more passages. Each version had its own masters, scholars,
  5. 5.  Emperor Jing of Han (r. 157 – 141 BC) ◦ Third version (the “old text version”) it was hidden in a wall of the home then believed to be Confucius when the home then believed to be Confucius when the home was in the process of being destroyed by King Gong of Lu (r. 153-128 BC) to expand the king’s palace. ◦ The new version did not contain the two extra chapters found in the Qi version, but it split one chapter found in the Lu and Qi version in two, so it had twenty-one used chapters, and in order of the chapters was different. ◦ The old text version got its name because it was written in a character system not used since the earlier Warring State period (i.e. before 221 BC), when it was assumed to have been hidden.
  6. 6.  Huan Tan scholar of Han Dynasty, the old text version had four hundred characters different from the Lu version (from which the received text of the Analects is mostly based), and it seriously differed from the Lu version in twenty-seven places. Of these twenty-seven differences, the received text only agrees with the old text version in two places
  7. 7.  Emperor Cheng of Han, Zang Yu (d. 5 BC) synthesize the Lu and Qi version by taking the Lu version as authoritative and selectively adding sections from the Qi version, and produced a composite text of the Analects known as the "Zhang Hou Lun".  This text was recognized by Zhang Yu's contemporaries and by subsequent Han scholars as superior to either individual version, and is the text that is recognized as the Analects today.
  8. 8.  Before the late twentieth century the oldest existing copy of the Analects known to scholars was found in the "Stone Classics of the Xinping Era", a copy of the Confucian classics written in stone in the old Eastern Han dynasty.  Archaeologists have since discovered two handwritten copies of the Analects that were written around 50 BC, during the Western Han dynasty.  They are known as the "Dingzhou Analects", and the "Pyongyang Analects"
  9. 9.  The Dingzhou Analects was discovered in 1973, but no transcription of its contents was published until 1997.  The Pyongyang Analects was discovered in 1992. Academic access to the Pyongyang Analects has been highly restricted, and no academic study on it was published until 2009.
  10. 10.  The Dingzhou Analects  was damaged in a fire shortly after it was entombed in the Han dynasty.  It was further damaged in an earthquake shortly after it was recovered, and the surviving text is just under half the size of the received text of the Analects. Of the sections that survive  It shorter than the received Analects, implying that the text of the Analects was still in the process of expansion when the Dingzhou Analects was entombed. There was evidence that "additions" may have been made to the manuscript after it had been completed, indicating that the writer may have become aware of at least one other version of the Analects and included "extra" material for the sake of completeness.
  11. 11.  The PyongyangAnalects  is similar to the Dingzhou Analects; but, because of the secrecy and isolationism of the North Korean government, only a very cursory study of it has been made available to international scholars, and its contents are not completely known outside of North Korea.  Scholars do not agree about whether either the Dingzhou Analects or the Pyongyang Analects represent the Lu version, the Qi version, the old text version, or a different version that was
  12. 12. Analects Of Confucius
  13. 13.  ANALECTS (Lunyu) simplified Chinese: 论语 traditional Chinese: 論語;
  14. 14. Lún Yǔ; literally "Selected Sayings“ also known as the Analects of Confucius, is the collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries.
  15. 15. Do not do unto others what you don’t want others do to you.
  16. 16. Men are born pretty much alike, but through their habits they gradually grow further and further apart from each other.
  17. 17. To know what you know and know what you don’t know is the characteristics of one who knows.
  18. 18. It is easy to be rich and not haughty; it is difficult to be poor and not grumble.
  19. 19. Do not worry people about not knowing you, but strive so that you may be worth knowing.
  20. 20. If a man would be severe towards himself and generous toward others, he would never arouse resentment. A man who does not think a plan long ahead will find trouble right by his door. To repay evil with kindness is the sign of a generous character. To repay kindness with evil is a sign of criminal.
  21. 21. When you see good man, try to emulate his example, and when you see bad man, search yourself for his faults. Don’t criticize other people’s fault; criticize your own.
  22. 22. The superior man is always candid and at ease (with himself or others): the inferior man is always worried about something. A gentleman is ashamed that his words are better than his deeds.
  23. 23. Reading without thinking gives one a disorderly mind, and thinking without reading makes one flighty. That type of scholarship which is bent on remembering things in order to answer people’s questions does not qualify one to be a teacher.
  24. 24.     THAK YOU for LISTENING    