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Django Testing
                              Eric Holscher
                         http://ericholscher.com




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                               1
How do you know?

                • First 4 months of my job was porting and testing
                       Ellington

                • Going from Django r1290 to Django 1.0.
                • Suite from 0 to 400 tests.




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                 2
30,000 Ft View

                • State of testing in Django
                • Why you should be testing
                • How you start testing
                • Useful tools
                • Eventual Goals



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                           3
State of Django Testing



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                             4
assertTrue('Hello World', community.testing.status)


Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                         5
Django 1.1

                       Making Testing Possible since 2009




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                        6
manage.py startapp
                        creates a tests.py



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                         7
from django.test import TestCase

   class SimpleTest(TestCase):
       def test_basic_addition(self):
           quot;quot;quot;
           Tests that 1 + 1 always equals 2.
           quot;quot;quot;
           self.failUnlessEqual(1 + 1, 2)

   __test__ = {quot;doctestquot;: quot;quot;quot;
   Another way to test that 1 + 1 is equal to 2.

   >>> 1 + 1 == 2
   True
   quot;quot;quot;}




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                               8
Fast Tests
                       (Transactions)



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                    9
Minutes (Lower is better)

                                          Ellington Test Speedup
                       60




                       45




                       30




                       15




                        0
                            Django 1.0                               Django 1.1



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                              10
You now have no excuse.



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                       11
Why to test



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                 12
Scary
Tuesday, May 5, 2009           13
Less Scary
Tuesday, May 5, 2009                14
Not Scary
Tuesday, May 5, 2009               15
Peace of Mind
Tuesday, May 5, 2009                   16
Code must adapt



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                     17
“It is not the strongest of
                       the species that survives, nor
                        the most intelligent, but the
                          one most responsive to
                                   change.”
                             - Charles Darwin


Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                    18
Won’t somebody please
                        think of the users?!



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                           19
Tests as Documentation




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                            20
Tests as Documentation

                             Test driven development
                                       +
                         Document driven development
                                       =
                          Test Driven Documentation



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                   20
“Code without tests is
                        broken as designed”
                        - Jacob Kaplan-Moss


Tuesday, May 5, 2009                            21
Dizzying Array of Testing
                               Options



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                               22
What kind of test?


                • doctest
                • unittest




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                         23
Doctests

                • Inline documentation
                • <Copy from terminal to test file>
                • Can’t use PDB
                • Hide real failures
                • “Easy”



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                 24
def parse_ttag(token, required_tags):
       quot;quot;quot;
       A function to parse a template tag.

         It sets the name of the tag to 'tag_name' in the hash returned.

         >>> from test_utils.templatetags.utils import parse_ttag
         >>> parse_ttag('super_cool_tag for my_object as obj', ['as'])
         {'tag_name': u'super_cool_tag', u'as': u'obj'}
         >>> parse_ttag('super_cool_tag for my_object as obj', ['as', 'for'])
         {'tag_name': u'super_cool_tag', u'as': u'obj', u'for': u'my_object'}

         quot;quot;quot;
         bits = token.split(' ')
         tags = {'tag_name': bits.pop(0)}
         for index, bit in enumerate(bits):
             bit = bit.strip()
             if bit in required_tags:
                 if len(bits) != index-1:
                     tags[bit] = bits[index+1]
         return tags




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                            25
Unit Tests

                • Use for everything else
                • More rubust
                • setUp and tearDown
                • Standard (XUnit)




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                          26
import random
   import unittest

   class TestRandom(unittest.TestCase):

         def setUp(self):
             self.seq = range(10)

         def testshuffle(self):
             # make sure the shuffled sequence does not lose any elements
             random.shuffle(self.seq)
             self.seq.sort()
             self.assertEqual(self.seq, range(10))

   if __name__ == '__main__':
       unittest.main()




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                        27
Django TestCase

                • Subclasses unittest
                • Fixtures
                • Assertions
                • Mail
                • URLs



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                        28
Test Client


                • Test HTTP Requests without server
                • Test Views, Templates, and Context




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                   29
from django.contrib.auth.models import User
   from django.test import TestCase
   from django.core import mail

   class PasswordResetTest(TestCase):
       fixtures = ['authtestdata.json']
       urls = 'django.contrib.auth.urls'

       def test_email_not_found(self):
           quot;Error is raised if the provided email address isn't currently registeredquot;
           response = self.client.get('/password_reset/')
           self.assertEquals(response.status_code, 200)
           response = self.client.post('/password_reset/', {'email': 'not_a_real_email@email.com'})
           self.assertContains(response, quot;That e-mail address doesn&#39;t have an associated user
   accountquot;)
           self.assertEquals(len(mail.outbox), 0)




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                                                  30
What flavor of test?


                • Unit
                • Functional
                • Browser




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                         31
Unit test


                • Low level tests
                • Small, focused, exercising one bit of functionality




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                    32
Regression test


                • Written when you find a bug
                • Proves bug was fixed
                • Django Tickets




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                           33
Functional


                • “Black Box Testing”
                • Check High Level Functionality




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                               34
Functional Testing Tools


                • Twill
                • Django Test Client
                • ...




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                              35
Ellington


                • Lots of different clients
                • Need to test deployment (Functional)




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                     36
go {{ site.url }}/marketplace/search/
   formvalue 1 q pizza
   submit
   code 200




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                       37
Tuesday, May 5, 2009   38
Pretty Functional Tests
Tuesday, May 5, 2009                             39
Can test

                • All sites on a server
                • All sites of a certain type
                • A single problemed client
                • A test across all sites




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                            40
Browser tests

                • Run tests in a web browser
                • Check compatibility of design
                • Basically an IE sanity check
                • Only real way to test JS, AJAX, CSS




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                    41
Browser Testing Tools


                • Windmill
                • Selenium




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                           42
Tuesday, May 5, 2009   43
Other kinds of testing

                • Spiders
                • Fuzz testing
                • Load testing
                • Prayer




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                            44
Where do I start?



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                       45
Fixed a bug



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                 46
Poking at code on the
                          command line



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                           47
Pony turned Horse



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                       48
Now what?




Tuesday, May 5, 2009               49
Start with a regression
                       test or a functional test



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                               50
Use unittest unless you
                       have a reason not to!



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                             51
Use the data, Luke


                • Use data as a pivot
                • Fixtures means you use Unit Tests
                • Creation on the command line, Doctests




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                       52
Creating Fixtures

                • ./manage.py dumpdata <app>
                • ./manage.py makefixture Model[x:y]
                       • Follows relations
                • By Hand




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                  53
TestShell



                       ./manage.py testshell <fixture>




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                    54
Making Functional tests

                • Usually a relatively annoying process
                • Testmaker makes it easy.
                • ./manage.py testmaker <app>
                • Simply browse and your session is recorded.




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                            55
Testing your views
                       generally gets you the
                          most coverage.


Tuesday, May 5, 2009                            56
80% Case



Tuesday, May 5, 2009              57
When > Where



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                  58
Tools



Tuesday, May 5, 2009           59
Coverage



Tuesday, May 5, 2009              60
Tuesday, May 5, 2009   61
Mock Objects



                • http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/mock/




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                         62
import unittest
   from mock import Mock

   from templatetags.cms_tags import if_link_is_active, IsActiveNode

   class TestIsActiveTag(unittest.TestCase):
       def test_returns_correct_node_type(self):
           token = Mock(methods=['split_contents'])
           token.split_contents.return_value = ('if_link_is_active',
   'bar')

           self.assertEqual(type(if_link_is_active(Mock(), token)),
   IsActiveNode)




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                   63
Custom Test Runners



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                         64
Django Test Extensions

                • Gareth Rushgrove
                • Extra Assertions
                • Coverage and XML Test Runners
                • http://github.com/garethr/django-test-extensions




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                 65
Django Sane Testing

                • Ella Folk, Lucas (Hi!)
                • Based on nosetests
                • Selenium
                • Live server
                • http://devel.almad.net/trac/django-sane-testing/



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                 66
Django Test Utils

                • Mine!
                • Testmaker
                • Crawler
                • Random fanciness
                • http://github.com/ericholscher/django-test-utils/tree/
                       master




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                       67
Recording tests is
                       generally seen as bad.



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                            68
My philosophy

                • Write tests.
                • Notice patterns and best practices
                • Automate recording of tests with those patterns
                • If you can’t automate, use tools to make it easier.




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                    69
Process for testmaker

                • Most view tests check status_code and response
                       context

                • Write middleware that catches this info
                • Records it to a file
                • Err on the side of more data.



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                               70
Goals
                       (That perfect world)



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                          71
Some form of TDD


                • Write tests as you write code
                • Makes your code easy to test




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                              72
Follow Django’s Model


                • Tests with every commit
                • Docs with every commit
                • Run tests before commiting




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                           73
Use a DVCS

                • At work we have a central SVN repo
                • Git feature branches
                • Code is staged for documentation and testing
                • Committed to SVN once it is “done”




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                             74
Continuous Integration



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                            75
NEVER LEAVE THE
                        BUILD BROKEN



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                     76
Love Green
Tuesday, May 5, 2009                77
Fast(er) Tests



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                    78
JSON



Tuesday, May 5, 2009          79
Profiling



                       python -m cProfile manage.py test




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                      80
Mock Objects



                       http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/mock/




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                              81
Future and Ponies



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                       82
Summer of Code


                • Test-Only Models
                • Coverage
                • Windmill tests of the admin




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                            83
Test Suites in Django



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                           84
Central Testing
                        Repository



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                     85
Nose Plugin Integration



Tuesday, May 5, 2009                             86
Things to remember

                • Testing is not hard, you just have to get started.
                • If your code doesn’t have tests, it will be hard/
                       impossible to refactor

                • Once you have tests, you need to run them!




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                   87
Credits

       • http://www.flickr.com/photos/tym/192416981/
       • http://www.flickr.com/photos/seandreilinger/2459266781/
       • http://www.homebabysafety.com/images/baby_crawl_suit.jpg
       • http://www.flickr.com/photos/pinkypigs/960572985/




Tuesday, May 5, 2009                                                88

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Django Testing

  • 1. Django Testing Eric Holscher http://ericholscher.com Tuesday, May 5, 2009 1
  • 2. How do you know? • First 4 months of my job was porting and testing Ellington • Going from Django r1290 to Django 1.0. • Suite from 0 to 400 tests. Tuesday, May 5, 2009 2
  • 3. 30,000 Ft View • State of testing in Django • Why you should be testing • How you start testing • Useful tools • Eventual Goals Tuesday, May 5, 2009 3
  • 4. State of Django Testing Tuesday, May 5, 2009 4
  • 6. Django 1.1 Making Testing Possible since 2009 Tuesday, May 5, 2009 6
  • 7. manage.py startapp creates a tests.py Tuesday, May 5, 2009 7
  • 8. from django.test import TestCase class SimpleTest(TestCase): def test_basic_addition(self): quot;quot;quot; Tests that 1 + 1 always equals 2. quot;quot;quot; self.failUnlessEqual(1 + 1, 2) __test__ = {quot;doctestquot;: quot;quot;quot; Another way to test that 1 + 1 is equal to 2. >>> 1 + 1 == 2 True quot;quot;quot;} Tuesday, May 5, 2009 8
  • 9. Fast Tests (Transactions) Tuesday, May 5, 2009 9
  • 10. Minutes (Lower is better) Ellington Test Speedup 60 45 30 15 0 Django 1.0 Django 1.1 Tuesday, May 5, 2009 10
  • 11. You now have no excuse. Tuesday, May 5, 2009 11
  • 12. Why to test Tuesday, May 5, 2009 12
  • 16. Peace of Mind Tuesday, May 5, 2009 16
  • 17. Code must adapt Tuesday, May 5, 2009 17
  • 18. “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” - Charles Darwin Tuesday, May 5, 2009 18
  • 19. Won’t somebody please think of the users?! Tuesday, May 5, 2009 19
  • 21. Tests as Documentation Test driven development + Document driven development = Test Driven Documentation Tuesday, May 5, 2009 20
  • 22. “Code without tests is broken as designed” - Jacob Kaplan-Moss Tuesday, May 5, 2009 21
  • 23. Dizzying Array of Testing Options Tuesday, May 5, 2009 22
  • 24. What kind of test? • doctest • unittest Tuesday, May 5, 2009 23
  • 25. Doctests • Inline documentation • <Copy from terminal to test file> • Can’t use PDB • Hide real failures • “Easy” Tuesday, May 5, 2009 24
  • 26. def parse_ttag(token, required_tags): quot;quot;quot; A function to parse a template tag. It sets the name of the tag to 'tag_name' in the hash returned. >>> from test_utils.templatetags.utils import parse_ttag >>> parse_ttag('super_cool_tag for my_object as obj', ['as']) {'tag_name': u'super_cool_tag', u'as': u'obj'} >>> parse_ttag('super_cool_tag for my_object as obj', ['as', 'for']) {'tag_name': u'super_cool_tag', u'as': u'obj', u'for': u'my_object'} quot;quot;quot; bits = token.split(' ') tags = {'tag_name': bits.pop(0)} for index, bit in enumerate(bits): bit = bit.strip() if bit in required_tags: if len(bits) != index-1: tags[bit] = bits[index+1] return tags Tuesday, May 5, 2009 25
  • 27. Unit Tests • Use for everything else • More rubust • setUp and tearDown • Standard (XUnit) Tuesday, May 5, 2009 26
  • 28. import random import unittest class TestRandom(unittest.TestCase): def setUp(self): self.seq = range(10) def testshuffle(self): # make sure the shuffled sequence does not lose any elements random.shuffle(self.seq) self.seq.sort() self.assertEqual(self.seq, range(10)) if __name__ == '__main__': unittest.main() Tuesday, May 5, 2009 27
  • 29. Django TestCase • Subclasses unittest • Fixtures • Assertions • Mail • URLs Tuesday, May 5, 2009 28
  • 30. Test Client • Test HTTP Requests without server • Test Views, Templates, and Context Tuesday, May 5, 2009 29
  • 31. from django.contrib.auth.models import User from django.test import TestCase from django.core import mail class PasswordResetTest(TestCase): fixtures = ['authtestdata.json'] urls = 'django.contrib.auth.urls' def test_email_not_found(self): quot;Error is raised if the provided email address isn't currently registeredquot; response = self.client.get('/password_reset/') self.assertEquals(response.status_code, 200) response = self.client.post('/password_reset/', {'email': 'not_a_real_email@email.com'}) self.assertContains(response, quot;That e-mail address doesn&#39;t have an associated user accountquot;) self.assertEquals(len(mail.outbox), 0) Tuesday, May 5, 2009 30
  • 32. What flavor of test? • Unit • Functional • Browser Tuesday, May 5, 2009 31
  • 33. Unit test • Low level tests • Small, focused, exercising one bit of functionality Tuesday, May 5, 2009 32
  • 34. Regression test • Written when you find a bug • Proves bug was fixed • Django Tickets Tuesday, May 5, 2009 33
  • 35. Functional • “Black Box Testing” • Check High Level Functionality Tuesday, May 5, 2009 34
  • 36. Functional Testing Tools • Twill • Django Test Client • ... Tuesday, May 5, 2009 35
  • 37. Ellington • Lots of different clients • Need to test deployment (Functional) Tuesday, May 5, 2009 36
  • 38. go {{ site.url }}/marketplace/search/ formvalue 1 q pizza submit code 200 Tuesday, May 5, 2009 37
  • 39. Tuesday, May 5, 2009 38
  • 41. Can test • All sites on a server • All sites of a certain type • A single problemed client • A test across all sites Tuesday, May 5, 2009 40
  • 42. Browser tests • Run tests in a web browser • Check compatibility of design • Basically an IE sanity check • Only real way to test JS, AJAX, CSS Tuesday, May 5, 2009 41
  • 43. Browser Testing Tools • Windmill • Selenium Tuesday, May 5, 2009 42
  • 44. Tuesday, May 5, 2009 43
  • 45. Other kinds of testing • Spiders • Fuzz testing • Load testing • Prayer Tuesday, May 5, 2009 44
  • 46. Where do I start? Tuesday, May 5, 2009 45
  • 47. Fixed a bug Tuesday, May 5, 2009 46
  • 48. Poking at code on the command line Tuesday, May 5, 2009 47
  • 49. Pony turned Horse Tuesday, May 5, 2009 48
  • 51. Start with a regression test or a functional test Tuesday, May 5, 2009 50
  • 52. Use unittest unless you have a reason not to! Tuesday, May 5, 2009 51
  • 53. Use the data, Luke • Use data as a pivot • Fixtures means you use Unit Tests • Creation on the command line, Doctests Tuesday, May 5, 2009 52
  • 54. Creating Fixtures • ./manage.py dumpdata <app> • ./manage.py makefixture Model[x:y] • Follows relations • By Hand Tuesday, May 5, 2009 53
  • 55. TestShell ./manage.py testshell <fixture> Tuesday, May 5, 2009 54
  • 56. Making Functional tests • Usually a relatively annoying process • Testmaker makes it easy. • ./manage.py testmaker <app> • Simply browse and your session is recorded. Tuesday, May 5, 2009 55
  • 57. Testing your views generally gets you the most coverage. Tuesday, May 5, 2009 56
  • 58. 80% Case Tuesday, May 5, 2009 57
  • 59. When > Where Tuesday, May 5, 2009 58
  • 62. Tuesday, May 5, 2009 61
  • 63. Mock Objects • http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/mock/ Tuesday, May 5, 2009 62
  • 64. import unittest from mock import Mock from templatetags.cms_tags import if_link_is_active, IsActiveNode class TestIsActiveTag(unittest.TestCase): def test_returns_correct_node_type(self): token = Mock(methods=['split_contents']) token.split_contents.return_value = ('if_link_is_active', 'bar') self.assertEqual(type(if_link_is_active(Mock(), token)), IsActiveNode) Tuesday, May 5, 2009 63
  • 66. Django Test Extensions • Gareth Rushgrove • Extra Assertions • Coverage and XML Test Runners • http://github.com/garethr/django-test-extensions Tuesday, May 5, 2009 65
  • 67. Django Sane Testing • Ella Folk, Lucas (Hi!) • Based on nosetests • Selenium • Live server • http://devel.almad.net/trac/django-sane-testing/ Tuesday, May 5, 2009 66
  • 68. Django Test Utils • Mine! • Testmaker • Crawler • Random fanciness • http://github.com/ericholscher/django-test-utils/tree/ master Tuesday, May 5, 2009 67
  • 69. Recording tests is generally seen as bad. Tuesday, May 5, 2009 68
  • 70. My philosophy • Write tests. • Notice patterns and best practices • Automate recording of tests with those patterns • If you can’t automate, use tools to make it easier. Tuesday, May 5, 2009 69
  • 71. Process for testmaker • Most view tests check status_code and response context • Write middleware that catches this info • Records it to a file • Err on the side of more data. Tuesday, May 5, 2009 70
  • 72. Goals (That perfect world) Tuesday, May 5, 2009 71
  • 73. Some form of TDD • Write tests as you write code • Makes your code easy to test Tuesday, May 5, 2009 72
  • 74. Follow Django’s Model • Tests with every commit • Docs with every commit • Run tests before commiting Tuesday, May 5, 2009 73
  • 75. Use a DVCS • At work we have a central SVN repo • Git feature branches • Code is staged for documentation and testing • Committed to SVN once it is “done” Tuesday, May 5, 2009 74
  • 77. NEVER LEAVE THE BUILD BROKEN Tuesday, May 5, 2009 76
  • 81. Profiling python -m cProfile manage.py test Tuesday, May 5, 2009 80
  • 82. Mock Objects http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/mock/ Tuesday, May 5, 2009 81
  • 83. Future and Ponies Tuesday, May 5, 2009 82
  • 84. Summer of Code • Test-Only Models • Coverage • Windmill tests of the admin Tuesday, May 5, 2009 83
  • 85. Test Suites in Django Tuesday, May 5, 2009 84
  • 86. Central Testing Repository Tuesday, May 5, 2009 85
  • 88. Things to remember • Testing is not hard, you just have to get started. • If your code doesn’t have tests, it will be hard/ impossible to refactor • Once you have tests, you need to run them! Tuesday, May 5, 2009 87
  • 89. Credits • http://www.flickr.com/photos/tym/192416981/ • http://www.flickr.com/photos/seandreilinger/2459266781/ • http://www.homebabysafety.com/images/baby_crawl_suit.jpg • http://www.flickr.com/photos/pinkypigs/960572985/ Tuesday, May 5, 2009 88