• The biodiversity found in genes,species, ecosystems, and ecosystemprocesses is vital to sustaining life onearth.
• Species diversity is very important toEarth’s survival.• So what determines if anorganisms is the same or differentspecies?
• Species - a group of organisms capable ofinterbreeding and producing fertileoffspring• Chimps vs. Humans• 98.7% same DNA• Wolf vs. Coyote• 93%
• Species diversity•Species - A set of individuals that canmate and produce fertile offspring•How many species?•likely 10-14 million•2 million species identified
• Insects make up most of the world’sspecies.• Insects make up 80% of species• Around for ~400 million years
• Useful to humans and ecosystems• Vital roles in sustaining life•Pollinators•Natural pest control•Renewing soils
• Species diversity• Genetic diversity - Variation with inindividuals of a species• Ecosystem diversity – lots of differentbiomes
Functional DiversityThe biological and chemical processes such as energyflow and matter recycling needed for the survival of species,communities, and ecosystems.Genetic DiversityThe variety of genetic materialwithin a species or a population.Species DiversityThe number and abundance of speciespresent in different communitiesEcological DiversityThe variety of terrestrial andaquatic ecosystems found inan area or on the earth.Fig. 4-2, p. 61
• Human activities decrease the earth’sbiodiversity by causing the prematureextinction of species and bydestroying or degrading habitatsneeded for the development of newspecies.
• Biological extinction - species is gonefrom the Earth.
• Local extinction - All members of aspecies is gone in a specific area gone• Endemic species – species found onlyin one area are especially vulnerable toextinction
• Natural extinction rate is usually 1-5 speciesa year.• Speciation generally more rapid thanextinction• Mass extinction – 10-95% of species goextinct 3-5 times in earth’s history