Chapter 4 biodiversity

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Chapter 4 biodiversity

  1. 1. • The biodiversity found in genes,species, ecosystems, and ecosystemprocesses is vital to sustaining life onearth.
  2. 2. • Species diversity is very important toEarth’s survival.• So what determines if anorganisms is the same or differentspecies?
  3. 3. • Species - a group of organisms capable ofinterbreeding and producing fertileoffspring• Chimps vs. Humans• 98.7% same DNA• Wolf vs. Coyote• 93%
  4. 4. • Species diversity•Species - A set of individuals that canmate and produce fertile offspring•How many species?•likely 10-14 million•2 million species identified
  5. 5. • Insects make up most of the world’sspecies.• Insects make up 80% of species• Around for ~400 million years
  6. 6. • Useful to humans and ecosystems• Vital roles in sustaining life•Pollinators•Natural pest control•Renewing soils
  7. 7. • Species diversity• Genetic diversity - Variation with inindividuals of a species• Ecosystem diversity – lots of differentbiomes
  8. 8. Functional DiversityThe biological and chemical processes such as energyflow and matter recycling needed for the survival of species,communities, and ecosystems.Genetic DiversityThe variety of genetic materialwithin a species or a population.Species DiversityThe number and abundance of speciespresent in different communitiesEcological DiversityThe variety of terrestrial andaquatic ecosystems found inan area or on the earth.Fig. 4-2, p. 61
  9. 9. • Human activities decrease the earth’sbiodiversity by causing the prematureextinction of species and bydestroying or degrading habitatsneeded for the development of newspecies.
  10. 10. • Biological extinction - species is gonefrom the Earth.
  11. 11. • Local extinction - All members of aspecies is gone in a specific area gone• Endemic species – species found onlyin one area are especially vulnerable toextinction
  12. 12. • Natural extinction rate is usually 1-5 speciesa year.• Speciation generally more rapid thanextinction• Mass extinction – 10-95% of species goextinct 3-5 times in earth’s history
  13. 13. • Humans cause premature extinctionof species.• Why?• 1. Food• 2. Competition• 3. Fear• 4. Habitat Destruction
  14. 14. •Listen Listen ListenListen!!!!!• Species diversity/biodiversityincreases the sustainability of anecosystems.

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