Species InteractionsSpecies InteractionsBy Mr. “I got worms” ChapmanBy Mr. “I got worms” Chapman
Concept to UnderstandConcept to Understand• Species interactions affect the resourceuse and population sizes of the species inan ecosystem.
Species InteractionsSpecies Interactions• Symbiosis – interactions between species.• Ex. Predation, parasitism, competition,mutualism, and commensalism.
Interspecific CompetitionInterspecific Competition• 1. Competition – the most common interactionbetween species• No two species can share vital limited resourcesfor long (no same niche).
Interspecific CompetitionInterspecific Competition• Resolved by:– Migration – move somewhere else– Shift in feeding habits or behavior – eat something else– Population drop – fewer individuals– Extinction – die out
Intense competition leads toIntense competition leads to resource partitioning –resource partitioning –each species becomes more specializedeach species becomes more specializedCape MayWarblerBlakburnianWarblerBlack-throatedGreen WarblerYellow-rumpedWarblerBay-breastedWarblerFig. 5-2, p. 81
InteractionsInteractions• Competition – when 2 or more speciesuse the same limited resources.– Competitive Exclusion
PredationPredation• Predation – one individual, the predator,captures, kills, and consumes anotherindividual, the prey.
PredationPredation• Predation influences where and howspecies live and is an effective way toregulate population size.
CoevolutionCoevolution• Predator and prey Relationship• Intense natural selection pressure on each other• Each can evolve to counter the advantageous traitsthe other has developed called Coevolution.– Bats and moths
ParasitismParasitism• Parasitism – one individual, known asparasite, feeds on another individual,known as the host.• Parasites promote biodiversity – help keeppopulations of hosts in check
InteractionsInteractions• Mutualism – is a cooperative relationshipwhere both species benefit.–Ex. Clown fish and anemone
MutualismMutualism• Both species benefit– provides food, shelter, or some other resource• Nutrition and protection• Gut inhabitant mutualism
InteractionsInteractions• Commensalism – is interaction whereone species benefits and the other is notaffected.–Movement of buffalo and birds eatinsects and lizards
CommensalismCommensalism• Benefits one species with little impact onother
Animation: How SpeciesAnimation: How SpeciesInteractInteractPLAYANIMATION