6 1 urbanization

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6 1 urbanization

  1. 1. 6-1 Urbanization
  2. 2. 6-1 Learning Goal How long we can continue increasing the earth’s carrying capacity for humans without seriously damaging the life- support system that keeps us and many other species alive.
  3. 3. Human Population Growth  Exponential growth (J-curve) in past 200 years
  4. 4. Human Population Explosion Human Population Increase Reasons 1. Ability to expand into diverse habitats
  5. 5. Human Population Explosion Human Population Increase Reasons 2. Emergence of agriculture
  6. 6. Human Population Explosion Human Population Increase Reasons 3. Sanitation systems and control of infectious diseases decreased death rates
  7. 7. How Long Can the Human Population Grow Rate slowing, 1.22% but still exponential Uneven global growth (9x’s faster in developing countries) Most growth in developing countries, least likely to cope No population can grow indefinitely 2050: 9.5 billion people at current growth rates
  8. 8. Population Growth  Cultural carrying capacity – the max number of people the earth could support at a reasonable level of comfort and freedom indefinitely
  9. 9. Population Change  Population change = (births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)  Immigration – people enter country  Emigration – people leave country
  10. 10. World Populations 2009: Top 3 countries 1.China, 1.3 billion people (1 in 5 people on earth) 2. India, 1.1 billion people (1 in 6 people on earth) 3. USA, 306 million people (1 in 22 people)
  11. 11. Population Change Fertility rate – average number of children a woman has. Fertility Rates in 2009: 1.6 in developed countries 6.5 in developing countries
  12. 12. Population Change  Why has the fertility rate in the US decreased, but population has increased? Give me specific reasons.
  13. 13. 77 years Life expectancy 47 years 1900 2000 Married women working outside the home 8% 81% High school graduates 15% 83% Homes with flush toilets 10% 98% Homes with electricity 2% 99% Living in suburbs 10% 52% Hourly manufacturing job wage (adjusted for inflation) $3 $15 Homicides per 100,000 people 1.2 5.8 Stepped Art Fig. 6-5, p. 99

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