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MLA
PAPER FORMATTING & CITING SOURCES IN MLA
MLA OVERVIEW
 Modern Language Association.
 Citation style typically used in the humanities
disciplines such as:
 Engli...
Paper Formatting
 Set-up: 12pt font, Times New Roman, 1” margins, double
spaced
 Do not add extra space between the titl...
In-Text Citations
 Signal Phrase
 Introduces information taken from a source in the form of a
quotation, summary, or par...
In-Text Citation Examples
 Signal Phrases
 One Author
Jay Kesan notes that even though many companies
now routinely moni...
In-Text Citation Examples
 Parenthetical References
 One Author
Human beings have been described as “symbol-
using anima...
In-Text Citations - Oddballs
 Author Unknown
 In the case where the author is unknown, use a shortened title of
the work...
Long Quotations
 When more than four lines of a source are quoted, off-
set the quotation by indenting the quote 1” from ...
Works Cited Page - Formatting
 The Works Cited page should always start on a
separate page at the end of your paper.
 Ce...
Works Cited – citation elements
 All citations in a works cited page should tell
the reader:
 The author of the source.
...
Works Cited Examples
 Reference Materials
 Basic Format - print & online
Lastname, Firstname. “Entry Title.” Title of th...
Works Cited Examples
 Books
 Basic Format
Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year
of
...
Works Cited
 eBooks
 Basic Format
Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher,
Year of
Publicat...
Journal Article
 Print Journal Article
 Basic Format
Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Article.” Journal Title vol.issu...
Web Resources
 Entire Website
 Basic Format
Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Name of
insti...
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MLA Citations

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Basic information on paper formatting and citations in MLA.

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MLA Citations

  1. 1. MLA PAPER FORMATTING & CITING SOURCES IN MLA
  2. 2. MLA OVERVIEW  Modern Language Association.  Citation style typically used in the humanities disciplines such as:  English  Foreign Language  Literary Criticism & Comparative Literature  Cultural Studies  Features brief parenthetical citations in the text that references an alphabetical list of works cited.
  3. 3. Paper Formatting  Set-up: 12pt font, Times New Roman, 1” margins, double spaced  Do not add extra space between the title and each paragraph!  Identification: first page of paper, left-justified include name, instructor’s name, course title, and date:  Example: Erica Street Professor X COR 107: The Great Conversation 30 March 2015  Title: centered, first page only.  A title page is not necessary in MLA unless specifically required by your professor.  Page Numbers: each page of your paper should include a page number preceded by your last name in the upper right corner:  (Street 1)
  4. 4. In-Text Citations  Signal Phrase  Introduces information taken from a source in the form of a quotation, summary, or paraphrase.  Usually includes the author’s name as a “signal.”  Page number in which information is referenced is included at the end of the sentence or paragraph.  Parenthetical Reference  Comes after the cited information, usually at the end of the sentence.  Includes the author’s last name and page number in parentheses.  All in-text citations must correspond to an entry in the Works Cited page.
  5. 5. In-Text Citation Examples  Signal Phrases  One Author Jay Kesan notes that even though many companies now routinely monitor employees through electronic means, “there may exist less intrusive safeguards for employers” (293). Corresponding Works Cited Entry: Kesan, Jay P. “Cyber-Working or Cyber-Shirking? A First Principles Examination of Electronic Privacy in the Workplace.” Florida Law Review 54.2 (2002): 289-332. Print.  Three or Fewer Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).  More than three Jones et al. counter Smith, Yang, and Moore’s argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust
  6. 6. In-Text Citation Examples  Parenthetical References  One Author Human beings have been described as “symbol- using animals” (Burke 3). Corresponding Works Cited Entry: Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays of Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966. Print.  Three or Fewer The authors state “tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights” (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76).  More than three Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore’s argument by noting the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (Jones et al. 4).
  7. 7. In-Text Citations - Oddballs  Author Unknown  In the case where the author is unknown, use a shortened title of the work. If it is a short work (i.e. journal article) place title in quotation marks, if it is a longer work (i.e. book) italicize the title.  Example: We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . ." ("Impact of Global Warming" 6).  Page Number Unknown  Do not include a page number if it is unknown. This is especially important to keep in mind when citing web resources. Include only the author’s last name or the shorted title in the parenthetical citation.  Indirect Sources  An indirect source is a source cited in another source. Use “qtd. in” within the parenthetical citation to indicate the source in which you found it in.  Example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as “social service centers, and they don’t do that well” (qtd. in Weisman 259).
  8. 8. Long Quotations  When more than four lines of a source are quoted, off- set the quotation by indenting the quote 1” from the margin.  Introduce the quotation and follow the introduction sentence with a : then the quote.  Do not put quotation marks around the indented quote.  Example: Botan and Vorvoreanu examine the role of gender in company practices of electronic surveillance: There has never been accurate documentation of the extent of gender differences in surveillance, but by the middle 1990s, estimates of the proportion of surveyed employees that were women ranged from 75% to 85% . . . Ironically, this gender imbalance in workplace surveillance may be evening out today because advances in surveillance technology are making surveillance of traditionally male dominated fields, such as long-distance truck
  9. 9. Works Cited Page - Formatting  The Works Cited page should always start on a separate page at the end of your paper.  Center the label “Works Cited” at the top of the page.  Double space all citations, but do not include an extra space between citations.  Indent the second and all following lines of a the citation.  All entries are listed alphabetically by last name.  When there is no author for the work, use a shortened version of the title and insert into its proper alphabetical spot.
  10. 10. Works Cited – citation elements  All citations in a works cited page should tell the reader:  The author of the source.  The title of the source, including chapter title or specific page title from a website.  Publisher information.  Year of publication.  Page range.  Medium you viewed it as (e.g. print, web, video, etc.).  Date of access (if an online resource).
  11. 11. Works Cited Examples  Reference Materials  Basic Format - print & online Lastname, Firstname. “Entry Title.” Title of the Reference Work. # Ed. Editor’s Name(s). City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Medium. “Title of Entry.” Title of Reference Material. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Name of Online Source. Medium. Date of Access.  Example Dictionary/Encyclopedia (print, no author) “Overfishing.” The Atlas of Global Conservation: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities to make a Difference. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2010. 116-17. Print.  Example Dictionary/Encyclopedia (online, no author) “Overfishing.” The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide. Abington: Helicon, 2014. Credo Reference. Web. 16 Mar
  12. 12. Works Cited Examples  Books  Basic Format Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.  Examples: Bailey, Kevin M. Billion-dollar fish: The Untold Story of Alaska Pollock. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2013. Print. Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Boston: Allyn, 2000. Print Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Logan: Utah State University Press, 2004. Print. Plath, Sylvia. The Unabridged Journal of Sylvia Plath. Ed. Karen V. Kukil. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 2000. Print.
  13. 13. Works Cited  eBooks  Basic Format Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Name of Resource. Web. Date of Access.  Examples: Barkin, J. Samuel, and Elizabeth R. DeSombre. Saving Global Fisheries: Reducing Fishing Capacity to Promote Sustainability. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 30 Mar. 2015. National Research Council, (U.S.). Sharing the Fish: Toward a National Policy on Individual Fishing Quotas. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web.
  14. 14. Journal Article  Print Journal Article  Basic Format Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Article.” Journal Title vol.issue (Year): page- range. Medium.  Example Ritter, Jessica. “Reconceptualizing Policy Class as a Practice Class: Increasing the Political Efficacy of Millennial Students.” Spec. issue of Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work 18 (2013): 1-16. Print.  Online Journal Article (from a Database)  Basic Format Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Article.” Journal Title vol.issue (Year): page-range. Name of Database. Web. Date of Access.  Example DiCosimo, Jane, Richard D. Methot, and Olav A. Ormseth. "Use of Annual Catch Limits to Avoid Stock Depletion in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (Northeast Pacific)." ICES Journal Of Marine Science 67.9 (2010): 1861-1865. Academic Search Complete. Web. 16 Mar. 2015.
  15. 15. Web Resources  Entire Website  Basic Format Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.  Examples The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue University, 2008. Web. 23 Apr. 2008.  Page from a Website  Basic Format Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). “Title of Web Page.” Name of Site. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.  Examples Shiva, Vandana. “Bioethics: A Third World Issue.” NativeWeb. NativeWeb, n.d. Web. 22 Jan. 2010.

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