Case Study: The peanut butter is tainted


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Case Study: The peanut butter is tainted

  1. 1. Manufactured by: <br />Ambika Sharma, Erica Choi and Kimberly Balao<br />Case Study One: The Peanut Butter is Tainted<br />
  2. 2. Patient Situation: <br />Symptoms<br />Diarrhea<br />Fever<br />Abdominal Pains<br />Lasts About 4-7 Days<br />Some cases of Diarrhea was so bad that some had to be hospitalized. <br />By the Numbers!<br />425 People from 44 States experienced these symptoms.<br />Out of the 351 persons with clinical information, 71 of them had to be hospitalized. <br />
  3. 3. Affected System<br /> DIGESTIVE SYSTEM!<br />
  4. 4. Our Specific Patient:<br />Experienced Stomach Cramping, Diarrhea, and Moderately High Temperature.<br />Sixteen Hours Prior: He consumed a peanut butter sandwich.<br />Could this be the answer to our patient’s problem? LET’S FIND OUT!<br />We cultured our patient’s fecal matter to find the etiological agent of his illness. <br />
  5. 5. Possible Culprits:<br />1. Escherichia coli(-)<br />2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (-)<br />3. Salmonella enterica (-)<br />4. Staphylococcus aureus(+)<br />5. Streptococcus pyogenes (-)<br />6. Haemophilusinfluenzae (-)<br />
  6. 6. How Do We Determine Which Bacteria? <br /> Find if the patient bacteria is gram (+) or gram (-)<br /><ul><li>Why?: The culprits are either known as gram (+) or gram (-). Know the patients gram, and we can eliminate answers.
  7. 7. Through methods of staining, we are able to conclude that our bacteria is gram (-)</li></ul>WE WILL BE USING MCONKEY AGAR as our differential media. <br /><br />
  8. 8. Staphylococcus aureus(+)<br />Escherichia coli(-)<br />Patient(-)<br />
  9. 9. Results ofMacConkey Agar<br /><ul><li>Agar had Patient Sample & E. coli.
  10. 10. E. Coli was very pink in agar.
  11. 11. Why?: E. coli is capable of fermenting lactose in the agar.
  12. 12. Our patient had no bright pink color, we are looking for a gram (-) bacteria that is incapable of fermenting bacteria. </li></ul><br />
  13. 13. Possible Culprits:<br />1. Escherichia coli(-)<br />2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (-)<br />3. Salmonella enterica (-)<br />4. Staphylococcus aureus(+)<br />5. Streptococcus pyogenes (+)<br />6. Haemophilusinfluenzae (-)<br />
  14. 14. Salmonella Enterica<br />Salmonella is a rod-shaped motile bacteria.<br />This can be classified in the bacilli group of bacteria, and it has a flagella which makes it motile.<br />Salmonella is arranged in a cluster-tetrad form which can be seen under a microscope.<br />This bacteria has a unique way of infecting host cells, it uses a “syringe” technique in which it injects a protein called SipA. This protein essentially ruffles the outside of the cell, allowing the salmonella bacteria to enter and then replicate. <br />Salmonella is an anaerobic bacteria that can survive under low Oxygen conditions <br />
  15. 15. Epidemiology of Salmonella Enterica<br />It can be found usually in food or water, and it affects the gastrointestinal region of humans<br />Salmonella can also affect deeper parts of the human body like bone marrow due to their unique way of invading cells. <br />Spread through the fecal-oral route (once excreted it in released into the environment and can infect it’s surrounding)<br />
  16. 16. Salmonella Enterica Cont.<br />Symptoms<br />Salmonella, after it is ingested, produces hydrogen sulfide which causes the cells of the intestinal walls to become disorganized so that the the bacteria is engulfed<br />The protein SipA then is injected into these cells via salmonella to “staple” actin filaments together and make curtain-like folds which allows it to engulf the bacteria <br />It is then taken to the liver or the spleen. <br />Salmonella has many evolved mechanisms that prevent our immune system from doing their job efficiently.<br />Patient might have typhoid fever. <br />This bacterium is a causative of typhoid fever.<br />Symptoms include:<br />Abdominal Cramps<br />Vomiting<br />Nausea<br />Usually lasts up to seven days. <br />How It Affects the Body<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Results<br />
  19. 19. Our Antibiotic Results:<br />Chloramphenicol<br />Gentamicin<br />Penicillin<br />Streptomycin<br />Tetracyclin<br />Vancomycin<br />
  20. 20. Chloramphenicol<br />A prototypical broad-spectrum antibiotic <br />Bacteriostatic antimicrobial<br />Inhibits growth of microorganisms<br />Interfers with bacterial protein production, DNA replication, and several aspects of their cellular metabolism<br />Effective against gram negative bacteria and anareobes<br />
  21. 21. Preventative measures:<br />Pay attention to cleanliness (proper cleaning)<br />Proper cooking of food like poultry and meat<br />Crack eggs with a knife and not on the bowl<br />Scald eggs in boiling water<br />Properly prepare fresh meats and vegetables<br />
  22. 22. Real Salmonella Outbreaks!<br /><br />