E learning project definition


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Recap of business plan development; Detail your e-learning project goals; Describe critical competencies; Outline your project; Validate with major stakeholders

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  • Often no clear demarcation/some overlap between cells!! We will discuss each cell, for general (in terms of facilitating or inhibiting e-learning) as well as e-learning specific.
  • Often no clear demarcation/some overlap between cells!! We will discuss each cell, for general (in terms of facilitating or inhibiting e-learning) as well as e-learning specific.
  • Substitution, innovation, transformation: see before Individual lecturer = course level: e.g. no development teams, no content management, simple user-interface required. Department = programme level: agreement on interface standards (look and feel of courses for students the same), usually portal function required, ………… Institution = curriculum level: institutional policy on how to use, requires institutional support organization, often integration with portal, LCMS, administrative systems (registration, admission, student information, finances). Domains (knowledge areas), educational levels (primary, secondary, tertiary) and learning outcomes (facts, principles, rules, ……… Bloom & Gagné’s taxonomy; knowledge, skills, attitudes) Gap to bridge: the wider, the more complex, and also: what are second-order prerequisites and inhibitors? Institutional e-learning provision, or (national) e-learning resources centre? Requires different roles and functions; organizational affiliations; funding mechanisms/business model!!
  • Relates to the options for solutions - given the scope and size - to be implemented. Example integratedness: group work requires certain electronic services and organizational procedures to support/tutor groups.
  • Often no clear demarcation/some overlap between cells!! We will discuss each cell, for general (in terms of facilitating or inhibiting e-learning) as well as e-learning specific.
  • Free interpretation of Nolan’s stage hypothesis. With new technology a new cycle starts Dutch HE institutions mostly in consolidation phase Initiation: a few enthusiastic individuals take the lead: tend to be lecturers with a technological bias and interested in educational innovation. Experimenting thrives in an open environment, without management interference. Expansion: the idea is catching on; different systems (hard- and software) and approaches proliferate; required investments grow! Consolidation: costs have grown to a level where management gets worried; incompatibility of systems and approaches begins to be ineffective; management starts regulating and employs professionals (ICT staff, educationalists, project managers); educational and technological roles and responsibilities are to be separated; interfacing between these different new roles/units becomes necessary; new structures are required: the result is often a break with the enthusiastic initiators of the first hour! Integration: E-learning has now become a common facility and is part of the core process; its efficiency and effectiveness is further finetuned, and further integration with other systems (support processes) is promoted (LCMS, admission and registration, SIS, FIS, MIS) to increase efficiency. Coordination between academic and administrative units is required, middle-managers play a prominent role!! Transformation: the core process is being changed as a result of technological opportunities; as a result the whole organization changes. Note 1: phases may differ between and within hierarchical levels, and between and within units! Note 2: phases may also differ between types of technology employed within the organization: the ‘hard’ ICT technology often is ahead of the ‘soft’ educational technology. Note 3: Because the ICT technology is often ahead of the educational technology, a support function (ICT) tends to dominate discussion on a core function (teaching & learning).
  • When in a development team
  • Self-directed learner: only relatively, depending on the level of personalisation. Study discipline: only relatively, becomes more demanding with full distance learning. Basic computer skills (technical): windows, www, VLE-operation, downloading and installation. Asynchronous communication and cooperation skills and attitudes: especially in oral cultures, and with large power-distance between people, this may initially be a problem.
  • Bottom-up: provides opportunities for new solutions to emerge; fosters commitment; has to fit the organizational culture; may lead to anarchy; may lead to personal hobby-horses; may never lead to completion. Top-down: relatively easy to manage and monitor; difficult to plan everything in advance. Often used after the pilot phase, for institution-wide implementation. Push activities = ‘designed’ implementation activities and tools. Pull activities = target is clear, but the activities and tools to get there are open: reward initiative instead of ‘proper’ behaviour. Phased = phased according to scope, size or complexity! Mix: being used in Dutch higher education (consolidation phase). Central goals and support, but decentralised implementation.
  • Uncertainty determined by: - clarity of expected end-result - the possibility to define the problem and generate solutions - the stability and accessibility of the environment - ……….. Complexity determined by: - functionality - technical aspects - methods and tools used - the organisational environment - the availability of time, staff, means
  • The emphasis tends to change as you move through the project life-cycle from initiation to planning to coordination to control. However, none of these activities is exclusive to a certain stage (refer back to slide of project life-cycle). Control and steering is possible on: - time - money - organisation - quality - information
  • Leerdoel: Begrijpen van de samenhang tussen een aantal organisatie-culturele kenmerken en het selectie- en implementatie- en gebruiksproces van een ELO. Aantal hiërarchische lagen: Power-distance (m.n. tussen studenten en docenten, rolopvatting) Academische cultuur De docent als koning in zijn klas Typering van universiteiten
  • Given the fact that all obvious prerequisites are met, it is still possible that your project fails, bacause: Wanting too much: individuals and organizations can only handle change in small bits; don’t lose sight of the real problem you want to solve! Wanting too little: not capitalising on additional easy wins. Institutional and individual inhibitors: even when policy documents are available, infrastructure is in place, training funds are available etc., the project can still fail because of ‘hidden’ inhibitors.
  • E learning project definition

    1. 1. E-learning project definition author: Eric Kluijfhout, eric.kluijfhout@gmail.com   This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.  
    2. 2. E-learning project definition Refresher Course for Senior Executives Program “ Entrepreneurship development and -training in a global perspective”: e-learning strand Uganda, 18-29 October 2004 by Dr Eric Kluijfhout
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Recap of business plan development outcomes (step 1-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6: Detail your e-learning project goals </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7: Describe critical competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Step 8: Outline your project </li></ul><ul><li>Step 9: Validate with major stakeholders </li></ul>
    4. 4. Where are we? Level Dimension Macro National environment Mezzo Institutional environment Micro Learning environment Pedagogical Technological Organizational
    5. 5. SWOT analysis Level Dimension Macro National environment Mezzo Institutional environment Micro Learning environment Pedagogical Technological Organizational
    6. 6. Select your e-learning approach Extended classroom Blended learning Distributed learning Substitution Innovation Transforma-tion
    7. 7. Determine your e-learning business model <ul><li>Who adds value in the e-learning value chain? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the client? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is paying for what? </li></ul>Develop content Develop education Deliver education Provide learning services Provide accreditation Provide ICT tools and services Provide telecommunications services
    8. 8. Recap of business plan development outcomes <ul><li>Step 1: E-learning approach determined </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: E-learning business model determined </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3-5: SWOT analysis and show stoppers determined </li></ul>
    9. 9. Project definition based on business plan definition step 1-5 <ul><li>Step 6: Detail your e-learning project goals </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7: Describe critical competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Step 8: Outline your project </li></ul><ul><li>Step 9: Validate with major stakeholders </li></ul>
    10. 10. Detail your e-learning project goals <ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul>
    11. 11. Scope options <ul><li>Targeted at the individual lecturer (course), the Department (programme) or the whole institution (curriculum)? </li></ul><ul><li>Domains, educational levels and types of learning outcomes covered </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical, technological and organizational disparity with the present situation (‘gap to bridge’) </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning services provider or e-learning resources services provider? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Size options <ul><li>Number of courses </li></ul><ul><li>Number of students </li></ul><ul><li>Number of lecturers </li></ul><ul><li>Number of ‘points of presence’ </li></ul>
    13. 13. Complexity options <ul><li>Pedagogical complexity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohort/individual, scheduled/free paced, fixed/ personalised route, individual/group assignments, ……. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media-mix, electronic services offered (server and client side), integratedness, security, ……….. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical levels and units involved, project/programme structure, ……… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The integratedness of the three </li></ul>
    14. 14. Validate your e-learning project goals Level Dimension Macro National environment Mezzo Institutional environment Micro Learning environment Pedagogical Technological Organizational
    15. 15. Project definition step 1 <ul><li>Take your e-learning strategy and business model in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Describe your e-learning scope 3 years from now, in max. 20 words. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the size: # courses, # of students, #lecturers, # points of presence </li></ul><ul><li>Describe your strategy to reduce complexity in max. 20 words. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Detail required roles and competencies <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturers </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Educationalists </li></ul><ul><li>ICT staff </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-media experts </li></ul><ul><li>Support staff </li></ul><ul><li>…………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Actual roles depend on the innovation phase!! </li></ul>
    17. 17. IS development phases initiation expansion consolidation integration transform. costs time
    18. 18. Role and competencies for e-learning: management <ul><li>Depending on the innovation phase: hands-off, observes, regulates, coordinates, initiates </li></ul><ul><li>Does NOT have to be technical experts on ICT or e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Should understand the potential and pitfalls </li></ul><ul><li>Should create an appropriate environment for the respective innovation phase </li></ul><ul><li>Should display leadership in solving intra-departmental problems </li></ul>
    19. 19. Roles and competencies for e-learning: lecturers <ul><li>Depending on the scope, either self-develop courses or participate in a multi-disciplinary development team </li></ul><ul><li>Computer and multi-media knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Change from lecturer towards tutor/coach </li></ul><ul><li>Manage heterogeneous and multi-paced groups </li></ul><ul><li>Manage 7x24 asynchronous communication </li></ul>
    20. 20. Roles and competencies for e-learning: students <ul><li>The self-directed learner </li></ul><ul><li>Study discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Basic computer skills </li></ul><ul><li>Skills and attitudes towards synchronous and asynchronous technology-mediated communication and cooperation </li></ul>
    21. 21. Other roles and competencies for e-learning <ul><li>Educationalists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design course didactics and media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge the world of the lecturer and ICT specialist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realise technical functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify technological opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-media specialists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realise multi-media products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify multi-media opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help-desk </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Project definition step 2 <ul><li>Take your e-learning strategy and business model in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the two management competencies that will require most attention </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the two lecturer competencies that will require most attention </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the two student competencies that will require most attention </li></ul>
    23. 23. Outlining your project <ul><li>Objectives-outcomes-activities-inputs definition </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Project roles and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Phasing </li></ul><ul><li>Costing </li></ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational culture </li></ul>
    24. 24. Logical framework outcomes objectives activities inputs planning Context analysis
    25. 25. Devise project implementation strategy <ul><li>Depend on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required roles and competencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom up vs. top down planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Push vs. pull activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phased vs. one-time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Project roles and structure <ul><li>Roles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steering Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Support Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(End) User Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>……………… .. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous project organization </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Phasing options Level of complexity Level of uncertainty low linear parallel: - sub-projects - simultaneous high cyclic: - development - version low high
    28. 28. Cost categories in e-learning projects <ul><li>Staff, including development/training and consultancy </li></ul><ul><li>Materials development/conversion/acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Production costs </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution costs </li></ul><ul><li>Tutoring services </li></ul><ul><li>Help desk services </li></ul><ul><li>ICT and multi-media infrastructure and services </li></ul><ul><li>Housing, transport, consumables etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Operational costs </li></ul>
    29. 29. Project management tasks <ul><li>Initiate </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Control/monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities and outcomes: timing & milestones, quality, risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs: staff, tools, facilities, funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation: work methods, strategies, structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Project definition step 3 <ul><li>Outline your project: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project roles and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Often neglected: organisational culture <ul><li>Power-distance: communication mechanisms between students and lecturers; authority, status and role definition </li></ul><ul><li>Academic culture: ‘not invented here’ syndrome; the ivory tower; experiment instead of produce; 80% is not enough </li></ul><ul><li>Global ‘rivalry’ between the academic and administrative organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Project organisation vs. operations management </li></ul><ul><li>……………………………… . </li></ul>
    32. 32. Major pitfalls <ul><li>Wanting too much: scope, size and complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Wanting to little </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible institutional and individual inhibitors (see also before): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misconceptions about e-learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of management support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of implementation capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>………………………… . </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Project definition step 4 <ul><li>Re-validate your project design with major stakeholders </li></ul>