Innovations in training


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These are the slides from a keynote address I gave in Brazil last summer. Finally getting them up.

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  • But unfortunately, we tend to stay in our comfort zones. Let me remind you of the old story of of the police officer on patrol at night who came across a drunk staggering around under a lamp post and asked, “Excuse me sir but what are you doing?”. The drunk said, “I’m looking for my keys,” and the officer responded, “but you keep going round and round in circles underneath that lamp post, which don’t you look somewhere else?” The drunk replied, “Because it’s dark and I can’t see anywhere else!”Well, we all tend to do this when we’re trying to be innovative. We are prone to sticking to what we know and that probably means we’re missing opportunities, which is why open innovation is so important. Open innovation means bringing in people who can see areas that are dark to you reducing risks of missed opportunities. And that’s one of the things that we try to do for our customers these days.
  • Innovations in training

    1. 1. Innovations in Teamwork and Training for Team Innovation Marc L. Resnick, Ph.D. Human Factors and Information Design Bentley University @PerformSol
    2. 2. Two Ways to View This Topic Innovations in Teamwork Training for Team Innovation
    3. 3. What is a Traditional Team? Two or more people who:  have a common and valued goal  have specific roles or functions to perform  interact dynamically, interdependently, and adaptively
    4. 4. Organizational Characteristics • reward systems • management control • resource scarcity • organizational climate Individual Characteristics • situation schema • task KSAs • general abilities • motivation • attitudes • personality Work Structure • work assignment • team norms • communication • structure Team Processes • coordination • communication • conflict resolution • decision making • problem solving • boundary spanning • internal reward system Team Changes • new norms • new roles • new communication patterns • new processes Team Characteristics • shared mental models • power distribution • member homogeneity • team resources • team climate • cohesiveness Task Characteristics • task type • task organization • task complexity Team Interventions • individual training • team training • team building Team Outcomes • quality • quantity • time • errors • costs Individual Changes • situation schema • task KSAs • attitudes • motivation Input OutputThroughput Feedback Situational Characteristics • levels of stress • intergroup relations • competition • environment uncertainty External
    5. 5. External Factors  Organizational Characteristics  Organizational Climate  Team Reward Systems  Team Autonomy  Team Resources  Situational Characteristics  Organizational Strength  Local Project Conflicts  External Competition
    6. 6.  Individual Characteristics  Situation Schema  KSAs  Motivation  Attitudes  Personality  Team Characteristics  Shared Mental Models  Power Distribution  Roles and Responsibilities  Resources  Climate  Cohesiveness  Task Characteristics  Task Type  Organization  Complexity  Team Interventions  Individual Training  Team Training  Team Building Team Input
    7. 7. Team Throughput  Team Processes  Coordination  Communication  Conflict Resolution  Decision Making  Problem Solving  Boundary Spanning Practices  Internal Reward System  Work Structure  Work Assignment  Team Norms  Communication Protocols  Task Structure
    8. 8. Team Output  Team Outcomes  Quality  Quantity  Errors  Cost  Individual Changes  Situation Schema  Task KSA  Motivation and Attitude  Team Changes  New Norms  New Roles  Communication Protocols  New Processes  Feedback
    9. 9. Special Kinds of Teams Virtual Teams Process Networks Open Teams
    10. 10. What is a Virtual Team? A team that  operates across space, time, and organizational boundaries  uses technology to mediate communication and collaboration
    11. 11. Typical Global Virtual Team Culture A Culture B Home Organization Home Organization Satellite Office Supply Chain Partner Z Supply Chain Partner Y Location 2 Location 1 Supply Chain Partner Z Location 3 Location 4 Location 5 7 Time Zones
    12. 12. Why are Virtual Teams Important?  Virtual teams are becoming more prevalent  52% of companies use virtual teams in some or all engineering projects  93% of companies expect virtual teams to become a standard practice or increase significantly within five years  Virtual teams are more likely to be globally distributed and culturally diverse  Support technologies are improving, but still do not reproduce many aspects of co-location
    13. 13. Challenges of Virtual Teams Logistics  There is less opportunity for synchronous communication and collaboration  There is less opportunity for team building and joint training  Technology-mediated communication increases the workload for managing and tracking activities  Reduced interactions decreases understanding of common objectives and goals  Reduced interaction between team leader and members decreases the quality of feedback and expectations
    14. 14. Challenges of Virtual Teams Team Management  Need for greater team autonomy increases the need for effective team leadership  Need for greater team member autonomy increases the need for members’ ability to self-manage  Team and team member autonomy increases the need for and use of distributed leadership  Formality of technology-mediated communication increases the difficulty of conflict resolution and need for formal resolution processes  Team deliberations are degraded because of increased likelihood of cascades and dominance by extroverted members
    15. 15. Challenges of Virtual Teams Technology-Mediated Communication and Collaboration:  Reduced social presence  Limited bandwidth  Degraded visibility of context  Reduced frequency of interaction  Increased formality
    16. 16. Challenges of Virtual Teams Team Culture  Initial trust is reduced by:  Reduced group identity  Reduced cultural similarity  Ongoing trust is reduced by  Reduced past collaboration  Degraded interaction and collaboration richness  Mutual support is reduced by:  Reduced group identity  Reduced frequency of interaction  More competing projects  Social connection is reduced by  Reduced opportunity for informal interaction  Reduced cultural similarity
    17. 17. Virtual Team Conflicts Team Diversity Functional Diversity Cultural Diversity Conflict Type Task Conflict Relationship Conflict Tech-Mediated Communication Logistics Challenges Conflict Resolution Consensus Top Down Avoidance Conflict Attribution Situational Category Personal Task Interdependence Task Routineness Team Performance
    18. 18. Process Networks Consumers B2B clients B2B clients B2B clients B2B clients Orchestrator Providers Support Services product and service flows information flows
    19. 19. Clothing Staples Consumers Gap Levis A&F H&M Li & Fung zippers, cloths, dyers, sewers accounting, regulation, IP, logistics
    20. 20. Why are Process Networks Important  Networks leverage scale, economics, capabilities, learning, and insight.  Networks optimize the balance of resources, capabilities, and speed to achieve flexibility, scalability, and innovation  Information and Communication Technology to support process networks requires big data, analytics, and cloud services.
    21. 21. Managing Process Networks But: Managing complex interactions among inter-organizational teams is a fundamentally different process than managing traditional teams.  Trusted and secure databases, data policies, and data transfer  Performance metrics, standards, and incentives aligned with the network strategy and customer expectations  Clear process for recruiting and expelling partners and providers based on performance, process, and innovation
    22. 22. Open Teams Opensourcing Crowdsourcing Smart Crowds Coordinator
    23. 23. Open Team Examples Opensourcing Crowdsourcing Smart Crowds Linux Wikipedia Innocentive
    24. 24. Managing Open Teams Opensourcing Crowdsourcing Smart Crowds • Modularization • Evaluation • Moderation • Metamoderation • Integration • Announcement • Instruction • Stratification • Parceling • Integration • Contestification • Recruitment • Instruction • Evaluation • Iteration
    25. 25. Training for Team Innovation
    26. 26. The External Environment
    27. 27. Unfortunately We Tend to Take the Easiest Path
    28. 28. Ideal Team Collaboration
    29. 29. Managing Innovation Teams  Innovation Process Funnel  VOC  Generation  Development  Filtration  Adaptation  Team Organization  Recruitment  Process  Handoff  DFM
    30. 30. Management Techniques for Innovation Teams  Innovation performance management systems  Innovation social graph flow  Innovation team building and strong ties  Innovation creativity and problem solving
    31. 31. Thank you!!