Community detection helps understanding the global structure of a network and the distribution of actors and activities. Moreover, the community structure influences the way information is shared and the way actors behave. Information spread quickly in a community and is shared by most of it members.
The centrality highlights the most important actors of the network and three definitions have been proposed by Freeman. The degree centrality considers nodes with the higher degrees (number of adjacent edges). The closeness centrality is based on the average length of the paths linking a node to others and reveals the capacity of a node to be reached. The betweenness centrality focuses on the capacity of a node to be an intermediary between any two other nodes. A network is highly dependent on actors with high betweenness centrality due to their position as intermediaries and brokers in information flow.
Social media - enterprise2.0 - course 2010 2011
toward corporate social networks
Organization have problems for
connecting people, documents,
information and knowledge
knowledge management, sharing and
example: vista print
"we need to train our new people quickly so the
don't break our software"
World wide locations
In 2008: 1400 employees in six
locations in north America and Europe
Good idea and knowledge
developed in each location
the whole company would benefit from
sharing this knowledge
"how the company would do a better
job of sharing its cumulated
A public success story of worldwide
problem of information
Performance of U.S. Intelligence
"even though the system was blinking red before
9/11, no one could connect the dots"
[Mc Afee 2009]
U.S. Intelligence Community
16 agencies in 2001
Each agency had its own database
Stovepiped information / hub-and-spoke
CIA investigations revealed that the suspected terrorists
Khalid al-Mihdhar and Nawaf al-Hazmi respectively held
a U.S. visa and had traveled to the U.S.
not shared with FBI
FBI phoenix office wrote a memo
to the counterterrorism
"effort by Osama Bin Laden to send students to the US
to attend civil aviation universities and colleges"
July 5, 2001
Meeting with counterterrorism, FBI, Secret
Service, Coast Guard, Federal Aviation
"Something really spectacular is going to happen
here, and it's going to happen soon"
August 6, 2001
CIA analysts' daily brief to the President:
"Bin Laden determined to strike in U.S."
August 16, 2001
FBI Minneapolis office arrests Zacharias Moussaoui
having 747 training without basic plane knowledge.
Agents, citing the crime of
"Destruction of aircraft or aircraft facilities",
were refused a search warrant on its personal effects.
August 24, 2001
Midhar and Hamzi were added to the TIPOFF
watch list, which was intended terrorists from
entering the U.S.
9/11 commission report
"we propose that information be shared
horizontally, across new networks that
transcend individual agencies"
business intelligence and the
wisdom of crowd
Example 3: prediction market
Iowa Electronic Market
applying the principles of stock market to
replacing securities by candidate
the price of the candidate is replaced by
predict percentage of vote
final result are close to the reality
the final error was of 1.49%!
Google prediction market
Application to technologies
can we use the diversity and the mass
of users to tackle the diversity and the
mass of information?
public success story of
use of the wisdom of
"The Intranet tends to follow trends
from the web, and social networking is
[Nielsen Norman Group 2009]
"It's better to structure information
according to how people use it, rather
than what department owns it"
[Jakob Nielsen 2009]
In 2015, the generation Y, used to social
medias in their daily personal activities, will
represent 15% of the European population
and 40% of workers in France
a whole generation that will ease corporate
uses of social medias and that will probably
argue for it
"the use of emergent social software platforms
within companies, or between companies and
their partners or customers" [Mc Afee 2006]
"emergent social software platforms"
"digital environments in which contributions and
• "globally visible and persistent over time"
• performed with social softwares that "enable people
to rendezvous, connect or collaborate through
computer-mediated communication and to form
• emergent, freeform, with "patterns and structure
inherent in people’s interactions".
[Mc Afee 2009]
intranet of people
Links follow me @ereteog
Authoring "read write web"
Extension see also
Social softwares for connecting
people, documents and information
• explicit and declared relations
• interactions between actors
• affiliation between actors
the bull's eye of @amcafee
• Strong links: close
• Weak links professional
• Potential links:
• Absent relationships:
remainder of the
"resources embedded in one's social networks,
resources that can be accessed or mobilized
through ties in the networks" [Lin 2008]
Keep email for its initial goal:
Once consumed, information and
knowledge in email are lost forever.
release and connect it!
Enterprise 2.0 and corporate social
Wiki, online office suites:
social networking service:
• link maintenance
• non-redundant information
• network bridging
blog, social bookmarking:
• efficient search
• link formation
• collective intelligence
Wiki are efficient for collaboratively
editing document and creating a shared
Social networking services assist links
Pushing / receiving
Emergent social structure
Blogs offer to easily publish information
Social bookmarking enables employees
to collaboratively classify content
through a daily personal activity
Corporate acceptance problems
vertical information silos
horizontal information network
organizational chart vs emerging structure
companies have spent decades at limiting the
amount of information and collaborators each
employee has to handle, in order to optimize
some companies face strong information
security and confidentiality restrictions and
cannot even if accept unexpected practices
and interactions in their processes
users need help for preserving the
benefits of enterprise 2.0 software
in order to efficiently handle there social capital
Social network analysis
helps understanding and exploiting the key
features of social networks in order to manage
their assets, their life cycle and predict their
Influences the way
information is shared
influences the way actors
behave [Burt 2000]
distribution of actors and activities
highlighting strategic resources
"A place for good ideas"
[Burt 1992] [Burt 2004]
transitivity of relationships
evaluating social opportunities
Analyzing intranet of people
sound great! but… what for?
have your organizational chart benefits
from emerging social structure
maintain strong links
• Does your organizational chart take into
account emerging communities?
• highlight influent actors and popular
resources not yet revealed by your
strengthen weak links
reinforce valuable weak links that connect
relevant assets and opportunities
Identify structural gaps and
connect communities and people
that should collaborate
Open problem: using analysis metrics
to leverage social intranet usability
• A. McAfee: "Enterprise 2.0: New Collaborative
Tools For Your Organization's Toughest
Challenges". Harvard Business Press. (2009)
• R. S. Burt: "Structural holes. The Social Structure
of Competition". Harvard University Press. (1992)
• Lin, N.. "A network theory of social capital", In D.
Castiglione, J.W. van Deth, and G. Wolleb.
Handbook on Social Capital. Oxford University