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AIR FORCE ASSOCIATION’S
NATIONAL YOUTH CYBER EDUCATION PROGRAM
CYBERPATRIOT
www.uscyberpatriot.org
UNIT THREE
Computer Basics and Virtual Machines
AIR FORCE ASSOCIATION’S
NATIONAL YOUTH CYBER EDUCATION PROGRAM
CYBERPATRIOT
www.uscyberpatriot.org
SECTION ONE
How Computers Work
© Air Force Association
• The central processing unit (CPU) does the grunt work of the computer
• Random access memory (RAM) saves your progress in many different software programs so you
can access that temporarily saved data later on. RAM is temporary. It is wiped when you turn
off the computer.
• Storage allows use to save data more permanently. Read-only memory (ROM) is read-only and
does not change often.
2
Computer Anatomy 101
Input Devices Output Devices
CPU
SoftwareStorage
Memory (RAM)
(Drives or ROM)
© Air Force Association
• Allows the operating system (OS) to connect with input, output, and storage devices
• Embedded on the motherboard by the manufacturers, and is a permanent piece of
the computer
• Connects the CPU with the OS so the computer can boot up
• Manages basic system settings like date and time and power management
3
Software: The BIOS
Source: www.Computer.HowStuffWorks.com
Source: itprostuff.com
Basic Input-Output System
© Air Force Association
• Examples: Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS X
• Coordinates a system’s resources so things perform and respond predictably for
the user
• Allows users to configure the computer’s resources without making permanent
changes to them
• Uses graphical user interface make it easier for non-technical users to use navigate
the system
• Manages the hardware/software resources so they are used efficiently by
applications
4
Software: Operating System
Source: www.Computer.HowStuffWorks.com
Source: theguardian.comSource: distrowatch.comSource: getintopc.com
© Air Force Association
• Perform tasks to benefit the
user
• Apply computer resources
to a specific purpose
designated by the user
• Often designed for a
particular type of
organization
• Sometimes bundled with
the OS
5
Software: Applications
Source: www.Computer.HowStuffWorks.com
Source: Motionvfx.com
Source: support.apple.com
© Air Force Association
• Servers: Computers dedicated to managing shared resources
• Switch: Controls traffic within a network
• Router: Controls traffic between networks
• Firewall: Screen incoming and outgoing traffic for anomalies and potential threats
6
Networking Basics
Switch
File Server
Printer Server
Web Server
Router
0
Source: https://www.cisco.com/cisco/web/solutions/small_business/resource_center/articles/connect_employees_and_offices/networking_basics/index.html
AIR FORCE ASSOCIATION’S
NATIONAL YOUTH CYBER EDUCATION PROGRAM
CYBERPATRIOT
www.uscyberpatriot.org
SECTION TWO
Virtual Machines
7
© Air Force Association
• A virtual machine (VM) is an
environment, such as a
program or operating system
that does not physically exist,
but is created within another
environment
• Does not have hardware, a
power supply, or other
resources that would allow it to
run on its own
• Essentially allows you to run a
computer within your
computer
What is a VM?
8
© Air Force Association
• Host [operating system]: The OS
on the physical computer on
which the VM is installed
• Guest [operating system]: The
OS the VM runs
• The Host OS and Guest OS do
not need to be the same
• Image: Another term for VM
9
VM Terminology
© Air Force Association
• Flexibility
‐ Run multiple OSes on one
physical machine
• Scalability
‐ Run multiple VMs on the same
computer
• Portability
‐ Easily transfer VMs to different
computers
• Cost
‐ Save time testing new programs
or configurations on a VM rather
than disrupting the host
‐ Run multiple systems on the
same computer (save hardware
costs and floorspace)
VM Advantages
10
© Air Force Association
• Performance depends on
host machine’s hardware
• Single point of failure
‐ If the host fails, progress on
VM is lost
• Running VMs pulls hardware
resources from host
machines
VM Disadvantages
11
© Air Force Association
• A software program used to create and run VMs
• Used to run CyberPatriot competition images
• VMware images contain several files that should
not be modified:
‐ *.vmdk: virtual disk files
• Simulate the hard drive for your virtual system
‐ *.vmx: configuration files
• Contain details such as the type of hardware to simulate for
the virtual system and the amount of memory to allow the
VM to use
‐ *.nvram: VM’s BIOS files
VMware
12
© Air Force Association
• A mathematical calculation based on the data contained in a file
• Comparing the checksum of a program you downloaded to the checksum
it is supposed to have will allow you to determine if the file has been
corrupted or modified
• Before each round, CyberPatriot teams must verify the checksums of the
competition images to make sure the images downloaded correctly
Checksums
13
© Air Force Association
1. Open
2. Click “Open a Virtual
Machine”
3. Browse for and open the
.vmx file in the image folder
you downloaded
4. Click “Play virtual machine”
5. Select “I copied it”
6. Click “OK” on Removable
Devices pop-up
7. Log into the user account
specified in the StartEx
email if not automatically
logged in
14
Opening an Image
2. 3.
4.
5.
6.

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Unit+three+ +computer+basics+and+virtual+machines

  • 1. AIR FORCE ASSOCIATION’S NATIONAL YOUTH CYBER EDUCATION PROGRAM CYBERPATRIOT www.uscyberpatriot.org UNIT THREE Computer Basics and Virtual Machines
  • 2. AIR FORCE ASSOCIATION’S NATIONAL YOUTH CYBER EDUCATION PROGRAM CYBERPATRIOT www.uscyberpatriot.org SECTION ONE How Computers Work
  • 3. © Air Force Association • The central processing unit (CPU) does the grunt work of the computer • Random access memory (RAM) saves your progress in many different software programs so you can access that temporarily saved data later on. RAM is temporary. It is wiped when you turn off the computer. • Storage allows use to save data more permanently. Read-only memory (ROM) is read-only and does not change often. 2 Computer Anatomy 101 Input Devices Output Devices CPU SoftwareStorage Memory (RAM) (Drives or ROM)
  • 4. © Air Force Association • Allows the operating system (OS) to connect with input, output, and storage devices • Embedded on the motherboard by the manufacturers, and is a permanent piece of the computer • Connects the CPU with the OS so the computer can boot up • Manages basic system settings like date and time and power management 3 Software: The BIOS Source: www.Computer.HowStuffWorks.com Source: itprostuff.com Basic Input-Output System
  • 5. © Air Force Association • Examples: Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS X • Coordinates a system’s resources so things perform and respond predictably for the user • Allows users to configure the computer’s resources without making permanent changes to them • Uses graphical user interface make it easier for non-technical users to use navigate the system • Manages the hardware/software resources so they are used efficiently by applications 4 Software: Operating System Source: www.Computer.HowStuffWorks.com Source: theguardian.comSource: distrowatch.comSource: getintopc.com
  • 6. © Air Force Association • Perform tasks to benefit the user • Apply computer resources to a specific purpose designated by the user • Often designed for a particular type of organization • Sometimes bundled with the OS 5 Software: Applications Source: www.Computer.HowStuffWorks.com Source: Motionvfx.com Source: support.apple.com
  • 7. © Air Force Association • Servers: Computers dedicated to managing shared resources • Switch: Controls traffic within a network • Router: Controls traffic between networks • Firewall: Screen incoming and outgoing traffic for anomalies and potential threats 6 Networking Basics Switch File Server Printer Server Web Server Router 0 Source: https://www.cisco.com/cisco/web/solutions/small_business/resource_center/articles/connect_employees_and_offices/networking_basics/index.html
  • 8. AIR FORCE ASSOCIATION’S NATIONAL YOUTH CYBER EDUCATION PROGRAM CYBERPATRIOT www.uscyberpatriot.org SECTION TWO Virtual Machines 7
  • 9. © Air Force Association • A virtual machine (VM) is an environment, such as a program or operating system that does not physically exist, but is created within another environment • Does not have hardware, a power supply, or other resources that would allow it to run on its own • Essentially allows you to run a computer within your computer What is a VM? 8
  • 10. © Air Force Association • Host [operating system]: The OS on the physical computer on which the VM is installed • Guest [operating system]: The OS the VM runs • The Host OS and Guest OS do not need to be the same • Image: Another term for VM 9 VM Terminology
  • 11. © Air Force Association • Flexibility ‐ Run multiple OSes on one physical machine • Scalability ‐ Run multiple VMs on the same computer • Portability ‐ Easily transfer VMs to different computers • Cost ‐ Save time testing new programs or configurations on a VM rather than disrupting the host ‐ Run multiple systems on the same computer (save hardware costs and floorspace) VM Advantages 10
  • 12. © Air Force Association • Performance depends on host machine’s hardware • Single point of failure ‐ If the host fails, progress on VM is lost • Running VMs pulls hardware resources from host machines VM Disadvantages 11
  • 13. © Air Force Association • A software program used to create and run VMs • Used to run CyberPatriot competition images • VMware images contain several files that should not be modified: ‐ *.vmdk: virtual disk files • Simulate the hard drive for your virtual system ‐ *.vmx: configuration files • Contain details such as the type of hardware to simulate for the virtual system and the amount of memory to allow the VM to use ‐ *.nvram: VM’s BIOS files VMware 12
  • 14. © Air Force Association • A mathematical calculation based on the data contained in a file • Comparing the checksum of a program you downloaded to the checksum it is supposed to have will allow you to determine if the file has been corrupted or modified • Before each round, CyberPatriot teams must verify the checksums of the competition images to make sure the images downloaded correctly Checksums 13
  • 15. © Air Force Association 1. Open 2. Click “Open a Virtual Machine” 3. Browse for and open the .vmx file in the image folder you downloaded 4. Click “Play virtual machine” 5. Select “I copied it” 6. Click “OK” on Removable Devices pop-up 7. Log into the user account specified in the StartEx email if not automatically logged in 14 Opening an Image 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.