Accordingly,so are the approaches to language teaching.And in order to keep up with the current changes in foreign language teaching,the curriculum is going through a change.
Handout-traditional&recent approaches((matching). The curriculum for secondary schools was prepared in 1969 and based on the Direct Method . It was innovation for this period but now we need changes since the world has been chang ing .
Componential analysis of the traditional and the recent approaches. Life-long and brain-based learning put the individual into the core of the learning process. This individualisation has highlighted the importance and the need of “can do” statements. Seeing the learner as a “whole”
Handout :Definitions (match ) MAIN CHARACTERISTICS of the NEW PROGRAMME-Promotes development of four skills, self assessment, self-expression, accurate as well as fluent language production, learning to learn, autonomy, and cooperative learning.
Curriculum is a focus of study, consisting of various courses all designed to reach a particular proficiency or qualification. A syllabus is simply an outline and time line of a particular course. It will typically give a brief overview of the course objectives, course expectations, homework deadlines, and exam dates. The new curriculum has been designed in the light of CEFR and it has the impacts on our curriculum and syllabus but the impact can be clearly seen on our course book through the integration of the activities with the competences.
For further info: Please check this website: http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/cadre_en.asp
A framework for distinguishing language competencies from one another which works on an individual basis. It is globally accepted and valid for all European languages
Also used worldwide for all world languages Clarify the differences among language levels Sets a clear and understandable guideline to evaluate and assess language development
Language qualifications enable people to work or study in all European countries. Promotes personal development in terms of general knowledge and helps adapt to different cultures for occupational purposes. Allows for recognition of language qualifications among educational institutions
Study and work abroad (part of recent CV requirements) / immigration Study at university in Turkey (TOEFL) to be exempted from prep programs
Related to new curriculum, the descriptors for primary schools are shown as functions. A new study has just started to convey the functions in to descriptors described in CEFR scale. The descriptors for high school-9th grades and 10th grade- are the reference level taken from Cefr.
These statements ( CAN DO STATEMENTS )describe what language users can typically do with the language at different levels and in different contexts (general, social & tourist, work, study). In accordance with the CEFR, the new curriculum has been designed to stress the importance of these statements.
CEFR defines expected outcomes in terms of reachable real life goals that can easily be turned into classroom activities when teachers don’t want to use the book. If they want to skip a section from the book, they can refer to the syllabus and find the relevant function/competence to design an activity.
D. Diller İçin Avrupa Ortak Başvuru Metni ile dili kullanma ilkeleri temel alınmıştır. Program, Avrupa Konseyi tarafından yabancı dil öğrenimi ve öğretimi için yabancı dil dersinin uygulanmasına dair, karşılaştırılabilir standartlar getiren Diller İçin Avrupa Ortak Başvuru Metninden yararlanılarak hazırlanmıştır. Bu çalışma, dile ilişkin yeterlik düzeyleri (A1-C2) tanımlayan, ulaşılabilir ve kontrol edilebilir amaçlar koyan ve bütün Avrupa ülkeleri tarafından tanınan bir araç niteliğindedir. Bu sebeple Diller için Avrupa Ortak Başvuru Metni (Common European Framework for Languages) bütün yabancı dil dersi öğretim programlarının hazırlanmasında başvurulabilecek bir kaynaktır.
-Focuses on the processes by which a student gains knowladge and understanding. -Faculty seek to expand student understanding through an active learning partnership with the student. -Regular, timely, and through assessment of student learning is a key component.
'Autonomy is the ability to take charge of one's own learning' (Henri Holec  ) 'Autonomy is essentially a matter of the learner's psychological relation to the process and content of learning' (David Little) 'Autonomy is a situation in which the learner is totally responsible for all the decisions concerned with his [or her] learning and the implementation of those decisions'. (Leslie Dickinson) 'Autonomy is a recognition of the rights of learners within educational systems'. (Phil Benson)
----***the ability to use the language correctly and appropriately to accomplish communication goals. The desired outcome of the language learning process is the ability to communicate competently, not the ability to use the language exactly as a native speaker does. Communicative competence is made up of four competence areas: linguistic, sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic. Linguistic competence is knowing how to use the grammar, syntax, and vocabulary of a language. Linguistic competence asks: What words do I use? How do I put them into phrases and sentences? Sociolinguistic competence is knowing how to use and respond to language appropriately, given the setting, the topic, and the relationships among the people communicating. Sociolinguistic competence asks: Which words and phrases fit this setting and this topic? How can I express a specific attitude (courtesy, authority, friendliness, respect) when I need to? How do I know what attitude another person is expressing? Discourse competence is knowing how to interpret the larger context and how to construct longer stretches of language so that the parts make up a coherent whole. Discourse competence asks: How are words, phrases and sentences put together to create conversations, speeches, email messages, newspaper articles? Strategic competence is knowing how to recognize and repair communication breakdowns, how to work around gaps in one’s knowledge of the language, and how to learn more about the language and in the context. Strategic competence asks: How do I know when I’ve misunderstood or when someone has misunderstood me? What do I say then? How can I express my ideas if I don’t know the name of something or the right verb form to use?
Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. A person who is interculturally competent captures and understands, in interaction with people from foreign cultures, their specific concepts in perception, thinking, feeling and acting. Earlier experiences are considered, free from prejudices; there is an interest and motivation to continue learning. ***** In many cultures all over the world, avoiding eye contact or looking at the ground when talking to one's parents, an elder, or one of higher social status is a sign of respect. In contrast, such body language can be construed as deception, boredom, disinterest or shame (on the part of the doer) in others. For example, an Anglo-European teacher may expect direct eye contact as a sign of paying attention, while an Asian or Navajo student will deliberately avoid it so as not to appear rude or confrontational. Unbroken eye contact is a common sign of aggression or dominance posturing among the animal kingdom, for example guard dogs.
In our coursebooks, we see the samples to integration of four skills. As we all know the skills are reading, listening, speaking and writing. Reading and listening called as receptive skills and writing and speaking called as productive skills. Here, we divide writing and speaking into two:production and interaction
This page was taken from teacher’s book to show how the learners’ four skills are reinfo r ced with the activities in each unit through matching the activities with the competence s.
CONSTRUCTIVISM Language teaching – no subject matter Content based instruction
Since the language lesson does not have subject- matter, we can bring several subjects into our lesson and make connections among the disiplines. Within CLIL, language is used as a medium for learning content, and the content is used in turn as a resource for learning languages.
Since the learners is the primary source of curriculum, it tends to draw heavily on pyschological foundations considering the values,, needs, interests, emotions and attitudes of learners.
Each activity in our course book match es with the competences in our curriculum. The more activities you apply the better you can improve the competences of y our learners. Sometimes we need to skip some activities in our course books because of time limitations but we should be very careful while removing the m. S ince we may also pass over the competence that we really need to improve.
Teachers’ hand outs: sample unit from the course book to show the connection with the activities and competences. Burada köprü kuruldu.
Hand outs: Sample from the 9th grade course book and descriptors of MEB. Ask teachers to create their lesson plan according to these descriptors in order to improve the crucial competences. Burada kitaptan herhangibir örnek seçebilirsiniz ama programdan belirtekelri de öğretmenlere vermeniz gerekiyor. Biz programdan dinlemeden bir örnek verdik ve 9. sınıf dinlemenin descriptorlarını yükledik.
THE RATIONALE BEHIND THENEW CURRICULUM AND THE COURSEBOOKS
SESSION OUTLINE• The need for a change• Key concepts in the new curriculum• CEFR as the driving force• Incorporating the CEFR and the new concepts into the new course books• A sample lesson from the program
Traditional Approaches Recent Approaches• Memorization • Teaching English as it is • Learner-centeredness• Teacher-centeredness • Learning rather than• Rote- learning teaching • Teaching technology and• Short term study habits the internet• Structures as a course • Promoting autonomy and subject awareness • Teaching English as a means of communication
THE KEY CONCEPTS OF THE NEW CURRICULUM• Learner Centered Approach• Communicative competence• Intercultural competence• Study Skills• Self-assessment• Four language skills• Cooperative learning• Learning to learn• Learner autonomy• Cross curricular• Socio-affective skills• CEFR
The new curriculum has beenprepared in the light of CEFR
What do these initials stand for?• C…………….• E……………..• F………........• R……………..
COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCES FOR LANGUAGES• COMMON• EUROPEAN• FRAMEWORK• REFERENCES
COMMON EUROPEANFRAMEWORK of REFERENCE (CEFR) LEARNING, TEACHING,ASSESSMENT
What is CEFR ?Common European Framework of References for Languages: teaching, learning and assessment• a single framework for all aspects of language teaching and learning: planning, instruction, and assessment & a common criteria for a description of language competencies.• designed by the Council of Europe
Main aim: to provide a standart methodof assessment, planningsyllabuses,materials, and teachertraining programs throughoutEurope which applies to alllanguages in Europe.
WHY CEFR?• Mobility among the members of the Council of Europe• Paying respect to other languages and cultures• To assist learners, teachers, course designers, examining bodies and educational administrators to situate, coordinate their efforts and cooperate among educational institutions in different countries
Internationally Recognized Examinations• C2 level 5 CPE (Cer.of Pro.in Eng.)• C1 level 4 CAE (Cer. in Adv. Eng.)_________________________________• B2 level 3 FCE (First Cer. in Eng.)• B1 level 2 PET (Prelimin. Eng. T.)_________________________________• A2 level 1 KET (Key English Test)• A1 entry - YLE (Young Learners)• Add a link Özcan Demirel, July 13, 2009 Antalya 15
EUROPASS CVMother tongue(s)Other language(s) Self-assessment Understanding Speaking WritingEuropean level (*) Listening Reading Spoken Spoken interaction production Language C1 B2 C2 B2 B2 Language (*) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages
CAN DO STATEMENTSThe levels are described in the form of Can Do statementse.g. “Can give directions” or “Can introduce him/herself”ANDThis gives teachers and students concrete goals from real life situations.
Basic User: A1GLOBALLY: SPECIFICALLYCan understand and use Can understand instructionsfamiliar everyday expressions addressed carefully andand very basic phrases slowly to him or her and follow short simpleCan introduce him/herself and directionsothersCan ask and answer questions Can understand short simpleabout personal details messages on postcardsCan interact in a simple way Can ask people for things andprovided the other person give people thingstalks slowly and clearly and isprepared to help.
LINKING THE KEY CONCEPTS OF THE CEFR AND THE NEW CURRICULUM TO THE COURSE BOOKS
Learning to Learn Cooperative LearningSpeaking production:B. 1. Can initiate maintain and close simple face to face conversation on topics that are familiar or of personal interest. Types of HolidayActivity.3. Work in pairs and talk with your partners and use theprompts in the box.I would prefer….. becauseI wouldn’t prefer….. becausee.g. What kind of holiday would you prefer? Why/Why not? (MEB, Breeze, 200?, 230 )
Study SkillsWriting Skill: Write short simple notes , messages or letters related to the topic. (MEB, Spot on, 2010, 129) Activity. B.2.Listen to the conversation and take some notes about the program.
Listening Skill: can identify the significant information in short messages or recoreded announcements.(MEB, Breeze,9th Grade, 2008, 108)A Trip to New Zeland• Activity 2. Listen to Karen’s messages on Roy and Mark’s answering machines. When are they going to New Zeland?
Communicative CompetenceSpeaking production:A.2.3: can handle very short social exchangeseven though they don’t understand enough toKeep the conversation going themselves.A.2. can express himself/ herself understood in short contributions, even though pauses, false starts and reformulation are very evident.
Speaking production:A.1.1. can establish basic socialcontact by using the simplestEveryday polite forms of :greetings and farewells;introductions; saying please,thank you, sorry etc. MEB, Time for English, 2006, 4th Grade,p.8
Intercultural competenceSpeaking production:A.2.3: give information about cultures andinternational events. MEB; My English, 7th Grade, 2008, p. 110
Speaking Interaction:A.2.3.exchange infromation about society andsocial life. MEB; Breeze, 9th Grade, 2008, p. 9
Four Language Skills Reading Listening Speaking interaction Speaking production Written interaction Written production
MEB; Unique, 9th Grade,Teacher’s Book, 2008, p. 1
1Integration of Four Skills 2 D IN REA G 3 4 MEB; Breeze, 9th Grade, 2008, p. 50
Cross Curricular Studies in Primary School Curriculum• “By bringing together several disciplines and making content connections across subjects (subjects: mathematics, science, arts, music, social studies, etc.) in the classroom, we can show learners that a topic is relevant, related to their real world and previous experience.” (MEB, 2004, 22).
Sample for Cross Curricular MatchingSOSYAL BİLGİLER (5. İNGİLİZCE (5. SINIF)SINIF) UNIT 1: MY COUNTRYÜNİTE 2: ADIM ADIMTÜRKİYEÜNİTE 3: BÖLGEMİZİ UNIT 2: MY REGIONTANIYALIM UNIT 3: MY TOWNÜNİTE 6: TOPLUM UNIT 14: HELPINGİÇİN ÇALIŞANLAR EACH OTHER
Cross CurricularStudyMEB, My English, 2008,6th Grade