UMAYYAD ARCHITECTURE (661M-976M) The Great Palace Of Al-hambra The Great Mosque Of Cordova
IntroductionMuawiyah Bin Abu Abdul Malik Bin Malik Umar Bin Abdul Aziz Hisyam Bin Abdul Malik Sufyan (685-705M) (717-720M) (724-743M) (661-680M) DAMASCUS SPAIN Abdul Rahman I Abdul Rahman II Abdul Rahman III Abdul Rahman IV (756-788M) (822-825M) (912-961M) (961-976M)
Significant Building During Umayyad PeriodGreat mosque of damascus- Syria Dome of the rock- Great Mosque Cordoba-Spain JerusalemAl-aqsa mosque-Jerusalem Al-Hambra palace- Spain
ALHAMBRA PALACE, SPAIN IT IS THE MOST FAMOUS EXAMPLE OF THE ISLAMIC INFLUENCE IN SPAIN.ERAZ AQILAH BINTI TAJUL EDRUSMINA AAINAA BINTI MOHD SANUSINUR IZYAN BINTI OTHMAN
CHRONOLOGY OF ISLAMICSPAIN 636-700 rapid expansion of islam following Muhammad’s wafat. 756 -the arrival of prince Abdul Al Rahman in Spain from Morocco as the soul surviving member of the Umayyad Dynasty of Damascus. 1238- The Alhambra was begun. It was built on the hill Sabikah for defensive reasons. Ibn al-ahmar founded the Nasrid Dynasty, and has built the Alhambra. Islam was spread rapidly into West Asia , North Africa and finally to Spain.
HISTORY Alhambra is an ancient arab fortress located on the hills close to Granada Alhambra : The Red one (red colour of the walls around Alhambra. Its principal architectural form was the mosque, which in the early days of the religion was a simple hypostyle hall oriented to Mecca. The Umayyad caliphs in Spain made Cordoba its capital and erected a splendid mosque there. Cordoba is the new center in Spain Alhambra is first and foremost a fortification, defined by a defensive wall.
The palace enterance is Bab al-Ghadur, rename by christians the Gate of the Seven Floors The 2nd enterance, Bab al-Shari’a renamed the Gate of Justice. a dense network of rooms mediated by airy gardens with pools of water Water – significant of luxury The Alhambra’s design is exquisitely simple: basic square-shaped building with courts. Any extension was connected by a passage. The true visual joy is when you walk into the
COURT OF THE MYRTLESFor sovereign andentourage
COURT OF THE LIONS for publicceremonials four channels of water,representing the four riversof Paradise declared in theQuran columnar porticosurrounding the courtyard
ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS Increadible richness of decoration > MOJALICAS ARABESQUES , seen all over the wall of alhambra geometry, floral pattern
COURTYARD-a transitional area between WATER ELEMENT-architecture &the administrative section of the royal nature are fused so harmoniouslyprecinct and the Palace of Comares Court of the Lions
MATERIAL (Stained glass)- The mysterious light thatfilters today through the window of the throne room
•MUQARNAS dome, seen in hall ofTwo Sisters.•Every known honeycomb patternis used in the ceiling design, whichcomprises 5000 cells.FLOOR , the square is pavedwithcoloured tile sand the colonnadewith white marble.
The Great Mosque Of Cordoba The site originally a Pagan Temple, then a Visigoth Christian church, Church of St. Vincent during years 600 Then the Umayyad moors come and converted the building into the mosque and then build a mosque on the site. The one of the most accomplished monuments of Islamic architecture After the Spanish Reconquista, it once again became a Roman Catholic church Great Mosque of Cordoba was begun between 784 and 786 during the reign of Abd al-Rahman I
Architectural features Square and rectangular plans Hypostyle prayer hall Double arches construction Horseshoe arches (originally from visigoth architecture – arches without keystone) Courtyard Alternating red and white voussoirs (Inspired from dome of the rock) Use Ashlar construction
Architectural elementElevated view of mosque with sixteenthcentury cathedral inserted at center. Courtof Oranges seen in the lower foreground Court of Oranges, elevated view from north with courtyard portal to prayer hall
Architectural element The system of columns supporting double arcades of piers and arches with alternating red and white voussoirs is an unusual treatment that, structurally, combined striking visual effect with the practical advantage of providing greater height within the hall.
Interior view of the prayer hall, looking Interior view of the maqsura,through the maqsura towards Qibla showing polylobed arches beforewall the qibla wall (to the right)
Interior view of the maqsura; ribbedInterior view of the maqsura; mihrab. vault before door to the right (west) of mihrab (Bab al-Amir)Mihrab chamber is seen through thearchway
interior view of the maqsura; ribbed vault beforemihrab and zone of transition
Interior view of the RoyalChapel (Capilla Real),showing zone of transitionwith ribbed vault
References http://www.spanisharts.com/arquitectura/i_prerromanico _visigodo.html archnet.org/library/images/umayyad style wikipedia.org/wiki/Umayyad_Mosque Nuhan N. Khaury,The meaning of the great mosque of cordoba in 10th century,Page81-94,Independent publisher A global history of architecture/Francis D.K Ching, Mark Jarzombek, Vikramaditya Prakash , Published by John Wiley & sons Inc., Hoboken, New jersey