Leveraging Capabilities to become a Learning Organisation


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Leveraging Capabilities to become a Learning Organisation

  1. 1. Sharpening the Winning Edge: Leveraging Knowledge to Become A Learning Organization  ASHWANI BHARDWAJ  G RAVITEJA  ASHWANI TYAGI  AARUNI FAUZDAR 1
  2. 2. Agenda  What are Learning Organizations?  Culture of Learning Vs Learning to build Culture  How does “knowledge” help ?  Survey`s Findings.  CASE STUDY  ROADMAP  CONCLUSUON 2
  3. 3. A Learning Organization “Organization where people continually expand their capacity to create the result they trully desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how learn together” –Peter Senge 3
  4. 4. The Learning Organization  Encourages Continuous Learning  Promotes Access to Learning  Maximizes Information Sharing  Increases Flexible Access to Training  Works Efficiently Using Interactive Relationships  Sees the Big Picture  Shares a Common Vision 4
  5. 5. Tacit versus Explicit Knowledge Characteristic Tacit Explicit Nature Personal, context specific Can be codified and explicated Formalization Difficult to formalize, record, encode, or articulate Can be codified and transmitted in a systematic and formal language Development process Trial and error encountered in practice Explication of tacit understanding and interpretation of information Location People’s mind Documents, databases, web pages, e-mails, charts, etc. Conversion process Converted to explicit through externalization that is Converted back to tacit through understanding and often driven by metaphors and analogy absorption IT support Hard to manage, share, or support with IT Well supported by existing IT Medium needed Needs a rich communication medium Can be transferred through conventional electronic channel 5
  6. 6. Why people do not share what they Solutions know? Causes Cultural Rewards Knowledge hoarding is considered a source of job  security Fear of not getting credit and suspicion   Loss of ownership of expertise  Fear of making mistakes   Lack of comprehension of value of possessed  knowledge Lack of knowledge sharing mechanisms  Lack of time to share insights, knowledge, “war stories”  and experiences Unwillingness to use existing technology to share   knowledge 6
  7. 7. The Self-Design Strategy Laying the Foundation Acquiring Implementing Knowledge and Designing Assessing Diagnosing Valuing 7
  8. 8. Organization Learning: An Integrative Framework Organization Learning Knowledge Management Competitive Strategy Organization Organization Organization Organization Characteristics Learning Processes Knowledge Performance Structure Discovery Tacit Information Invention Explicit Systems Production HR Practices Generalization Culture Leadership 8
  9. 9. Stage 3 Pilots and KM Stage 5 Initiatives Institutionalize Stage 1 KM Getting Started Stage 4 Stage 2 Expand and Explore and Support Experiment 9
  10. 10. KM Benefits 10
  11. 11. Shift from Instructor-Led Training to eLearning 11 (IDC, 2001)
  12. 12. KM: Dimensions 12
  13. 13. Individual Dimension   Give individuals the time to learn.  See the distribution of work from the lens of development and learning. Do not ask simply, Who can get the job done? Ask Who can get the job done and learn along the way?  Assess performance with a view to learning and development too – Ask both What has the individual done? and What has the individual learned? Give weight to both in any formal or informal assessment.  Select and develop for competencies that support a learning organization – active listening, mentoring, coaching, etc, and focus management and leadership development accordingly. 13
  14. 14.  Give managers the time to function as learning coaches.  Create incentives and rewards for individual learning.  Create incentives and rewards for managers as learning coaches. 14
  15. 15. TEAM DIMENSION •Support diversity of viewpoints (challenge the accepted wisdom – inform strategy with debate). • Encourage dialogue as a standard for group conversations and deliberations. • Focus on building a learning culture within teams, especially the executive team. 15
  16. 16. TEAM DIMENSION  Get senior executives to embrace the ideal of a learning organization.  See learning as connected to the strategic future of the organization: Where do we have to be in five years and how do we have to develop people now to get there?  Ask What does the organization need to know that it does not know? What are its areas of crucial ignorance? Note, these areas of ignorance could include itself. It is unwise to assume that organization is self-aware.  See such processes as strategic planning, environment scanning, foresighting, and organizational culture assessment as learning processes. Distribute the knowledge across the organization so that individuals and teams can learn about the organization 16
  17. 17.  Review the organizational culture particularly with a view to describing its learning capacity, focusing on individuals, groups, and the organization itself – an organizational learning diagnostic. Share it across the organization so that individuals and teams can learn.  Focus on the learning culture of the executive team.  Develop executives to exemplify the desired learning culture.  Give executives the time to learn.  Reward executives who learn and who promote learning.  Prepare a strategy for building the learning organization and see its implementation as an exercise in change leadership and organizational learning. 17
  18. 18. Key Learning  All types of cultures can be leveraged for learning  Stage in the organizational life determines culture and learning  Doing cultures succeed in the short run  Learning cultures last in the long run  Learning is yet to be a ‘structured’ as a business driver  Business case for learning is yet to be powerfully built by L&D / HR  Bandwagon mindset dilutes the case for serious learning programs  Learning and Doing feed on each other.  Culture must fit learning objectives, else it can hinder 18
  19. 19. Culture of Learning Vs Learning for Culture  Organizations are usually caught between the two :  You need a supportive culture to encourage learning  You need a learning orientation to create a culture  Successful leaders find a way to break this vicious cycle Learning is useless without doing. Doing well is impossible without effective learning 19
  20. 20. Stimulate Learning  Horizon award scheme- Increase of prize money  Encouraging young executives to pursue certified course in project management by reducing eligibility from 7 to 5 years. 20
  21. 21. Shared visions Shared Vision evolves Personal 1 Personal 2 Personal 3 21
  22. 22. CASE STUDY 22
  23. 23. TATA STEEL “Tata Steel enters the new millennium with the confidence of learning and knowledge based organization…..” Head Knowledge Management, Tata Steel. 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. Stakeholders in KM at TATA Steel  Senior Management  Officers  Employees (Supervisors & Workmen)  Customers  Suppliers  Experts (In & outside company) 26
  27. 27. Knowledge Transfer at TATA Steel  Opportunity of knowledge transfer  Day-to-day operation  Learning from failure  Published Papers by employees (National and International publications)  Task Force/Consultant/Technical Groups  Engineering Project  Knowledge Sharing across the value chain.  Knowledge generated through Suggestions, Small Group Activity, etc. 27
  28. 28. Knowledge Transfer at TATA Steel  Instruments of Knowledge Transfer  Knowledge Contribution by an individual  Ask Author  Ask Expert  Knowledge Usage  Communities of Practice  Content Management  Involving shop-floor employees in KM 28
  29. 29. AWARDS & ACCOLADES  TATA STEEL- Winner of MAKE ASIA 2003 AW  TATA STEEL- Winner of MAKE ASIA 2004 Awa  TATA STEEL- Winner of the first Indian MAKE Award, 2005  TATA STEEL- Ranked as no.1 in 2006,Indian MAKE Survey 29
  30. 30. ROAD MAP FOR NTPC 30
  31. 31. Why Knowledge Management for NTPC NTPC’s Knowledge Management imperatives are derived from its Strategic Objectives and HR vision of becoming a “Learning Organization” Strategic Objectives Knowledge Management Imperatives Plan and expeditiously Improve engineering and project construction lead implement power projects time past knowledge and experience Operate power Reduce operations and maintenance costs and stations economically and efficiently improve work practices by sharing ideas Diversify and grow Capture external knowledge and leverage into new areas experiential knowledge for commercial purposes 31
  32. 32. NTPC has accumulated a VAST KNOWLEDGE BASE across all its value chain elements… New Capacity Power Planning Engineering Collection Creation Generation • Government • Feasibility reports • Project planning • Operations and • Billing and Key liaison • Plant configuration • Project execution dispatch collection • Strategy design System • Project • Maintenance • Tariff setting Business Formulation engineering commissioning • Procurement and filing Processes • Quality control • Annual plans • Inventory and • New business • Technical management Activities development evaluation of vendors • Explicit and • Cost engineering • Package wise • Operating and • Regulatory tacit for feasibility project execution Maintenance guidelines stakeholder reports activities procedures • Customer requirements • Product • Activity • Troubleshooting requirements • Regulatory specifications dependence- serial Residing requirements • Detailed vs parallel Knowledge engineering civil • Timelines for Base in plans, mechanical, each activity; key NTPC electrical, C&I milestones (examples) • Quality tests and • Testing and clearance points schedules for QA • Commissioning schedules 32
  33. 33. Present Set-up in NTPC  Online: i) KM portal on CC Intranet ii) Engineer’s Forum iii) ERP KM Implementation in progress iv) IPON Launched  Team Events like NOCET, PC, QC, Business minds  In-House journals like Horizon, Power Scan  Reports: Project completion Reports, Case studies  Mentoring & Reverse Mentoring, Technical and managerial training. 33
  34. 34. Characteristics to be Adopted 34
  35. 35. Characteristics Description Exhibits top-level commitment to learning  Ensures that resources and facilities for self-development will be available to employees – including resources outside of formal classroom training, such as coaching, mentoring, feedback and counseling. Commitment from the top of the organization sends signals to employees that organization highly values learning Fosters continuous Organization allows staff to question current and past assumptions, unlearn learning, unlearning and relearning outdated techniques and relearn latest processes and systems  Leaders do not “cling” to old techniques Practices workplace Organization allows employees to proactively identify problems and take steps democracy to solve them Leaders recognize that leadership does not involve monopolization, but rather liberation Undertakes environmental monitoring Organization studies customers, suppliers, competitors, government policies, technology producers and economic conditions to assess their implications on the organization’s current and future business 35
  36. 36. Characteristics Description Utilises Information technology as an enabling tool  Utilizes user-friendly information systems to capture, store and share knowledge throughout the organization  Groups of employees share knowledge, skills and experiences Encourages team learning with each other    Team environments stimulate new perspectives and innovations Translates training and learning into  Managers monitor effectiveness of training and learning by practice assessing employee’s degree of application of new techniques and methods  Organization measures individual or team performance and rewards them accordingly based upon performance through the reward schemes presented below :- Ties rewards to performance   -         Bonuses     -         Promotion   -         Profit sharing schemes -         Rewards for development of special skills 36
  37. 37. CONCLUSION “the journey of miles start with the advancement of a step” 37
  38. 38. Thank you for your kind participation. ANY QUERIES PLEASE… 38
  39. 39. To fulfill its objective of becoming a “Learning organisation”, we are developing an integrated Knowledge Management System NTPC’s Knowledge Management System would focus on three critical aspects Description • Subscription/membership to domain External specific industry reports Knowledge • Subscription/membership to domain specific technology journals • Capturing trends in the external environment (international and national) NTPC Internal • Capturing and assimilating explicit and Knowledge Knowledge tacit knowledge residing within NTPC Management • Making the captured knowledge System available to employees for re-use • Updating internal knowledge • Chat Collaborative • Message boards Tools • Polls 39
  40. 40. The Knowledge Management System would be driven by the KM process Initial Identify knowledge Identify domain leaders Identify affinity group Decisions domains in NTPC for each domain members What knowledge does Who will lead the Who will actively structure and NTPC have? knowledge domain? contribute to the knowledge base? Initiate the Internal KM process Knowledge Update - Affinity groups and users contribute to knowledge database Categorise knowledge User Affinity • Approach, Tools, Templates, Groups Guiding Principles, Best Practices etc. Access knowledge Knowledge Management User Process Domain Leaders and Affinity Group Upload knowledge on the Identify and assimilate network; create knowledge knowledge elements for each catalogues category and submit 40
  41. 41. KM process steps will comprise assimilation of knowledge from various locations and uploading on the KM intranet for dissemination 1 Identify and CKO appoint domain leaders 2 6 7 8 Identify and Capture Classify knowledge, Domain Submit documents for appoint affinity knowledge create categories Leaders uploading the groups at each from all – Location wise knowledge intranet plant locations – Type of knowledge 3 5 Affinity Seek and Assimilate Electronically submit Groups knowledge in the captured knowledge to (at respective domains domain leaders plants) 4 10 Submit knowledge Users download Employees capture documents to knowledge (at plants) affinity groups in their documents at all respective locations locations IT Deptt. Set up company wide 9 Upload documents on /Core Team intranet and KM Structure the database the intranet (at CC) application 41
  42. 42. Case Examples: Global Utility companies are becoming learning organisationsCompanies Case Study: KM in Utility by adopting Knowledge Management Systems Global Utility Company KM Initiative Benefits Set up an enterprise wide • Improved access to drawings integrated document and engineering information management system across resulting in reduced engineering geographies lead-times • Improved information sharing Set up an enterprise wide across 20,000 users KM system to become a • Efficient decision making learning organisation processes Set up a KM system in the • Sharing maintenance best drilling and refining practices across refineries businesses across • Reduced costs by $ 2 bn over the geographies last 7 years • Reduced cycle time by 12% - 20% Implemented a KM • Improved productivity through British system to manage efficient re-use of knowledge documents and drawings • Timely sharing of information Petroleum across various oilfields across geographies 42 Source: A.T. Kearney Research
  43. 43. The Knowledge Management System would provide several benefits to the organisation  Develop NTPC into a learning organisation by creating a culture of knowledge sharing  Build an environment of trust and openness  Prevent “re-inventing the wheel” – reduce employee effort to seek knowledge and experience  Improve efficiency – employees spend more time in analysing rather than in searching for information  Reduce leadtime in business processes and day-to-day activities  Reduce cost through sharing of ideas and best practices across plants  Capitalise on external knowledge for identifying revenue enhancement opportunities for NTPC 43
  44. 44. Q&A 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. The knowledge management process Demonstrat Stor e Value Acquire e Deplo Add y Valu e Clients Provide Infrastructure Learn Input E&Y teams 07/05/09 LEADING INNOVATION
  47. 47. Present Status of NTPC  ERP implementation – In Progress  Idea Portal of NTPC(IPON) Launched.  Presently Knowledge acquisition and creation phase is going on.  Engineer’s Forum implemented. 47
  48. 48. Knowledge Tools  KWeb (Knowledge Web)  Internal sites  External sites  CBK (Center for Business Knowledge)  Self-serve knowledge environment  Assisted research environment  Provides knowledge-sharing solutions 48
  49. 49. EY Home Page 49
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. Learning Tools  EY Learning Connection (for all employees)  EY Learning Content Repository (for trainers) 51
  52. 52. Learning Portal 52
  53. 53.  THE SURVEY SHOULD COVER THE FOLLOWING ASPECTS. 1. The present status of NTPC as a learning organisation. 2.Whether the organisation stimutates learning. 3. If ,yes, in what sense? How it is effective and what is the improvement or advantage it gives to the organisation to have edge over others. 4. If ,no, then where to attack and what strategy to be adopted. 5. Road map to achieve the target. 53
  54. 54. CHALLENGES  Capture and Structure Knowledge  Create Knowledge Sharing Environment and IT Enablers  Disseminate and Apply Knowledge 54
  55. 55. NTPC has accumulated a vast knowledgebase across all its value chain elements… New Capacity Power Generation Planning Engineering Collection Creation and Dispatch Key Business • Government • Feasibility reports • Project planning • Operations and • Billing and Processes liaison • Plant configuration • Project execution dispatch collection • Strategy design; package • Project commissioning • Maintenance • Tariff setting and • Procurement Formulation definition and filing Activities • Annual plans • System engineering • Inventory • New business • Quality control management development • Technical evaluation of vendors • Explicit and tacit • Cost engineering for • Package wise project • Operating and • Regulatory Residing stakeholder feasibility reports execution activities Maintenance guidelines Knowledge requirements • Plant Performance • Activity dependence- procedures • Customer Base in • Regulatory specifications serial vs parallel • Troubleshooting requirements NTPC requirements • Product specifications • Timelines for each (examples) • Detailed engineering activity; key plan of civil, milestones mechanical and • Testing and schedules electrical • Commissioning • Quality tests and schedules clearance points for QA 55
  56. 56. There are significant challenges for NTPC to effectively manage its accumulated knowledge base Steps in Knowledge Management Create Knowledge Sharing Disseminate and Apply Capture and Structure Knowledge Environment and IT Enablers Knowledge  Learning and experiences are not captured  Lack of enabling IT systems to  Knowledge and experience and summarized; referring to past enable speedy retrieval of resides with individuals; documents makes re-use of past knowledge across levels, sharing is relationship based experiences cumbersome functions and geographies  Project completion reports  Conversion of past documents  Tacit knowledge residing with individuals that capture the learning of from hard formats into soft is not documented formats requires significant effort each project are not • Experiences of addressing various adequately shared across Key Challenges stakeholders interests (government  Inadequate communication across plants agencies, NGOs etc.) for project functions inhibits knowledge sharing  Past documents (proposals, approvals have not been documented project reports etc.) are stored  No processes to create awareness  Inadequate communication across manually or on local PCs about the existing knowledge base functions, levels and geographies inhibits across functions and geographies making it difficult for them to knowledge updation be shared across the  No recognition and rewards for functions, levels and  No formal process for classification and contributions to knowledge geographies codification of knowledge resulting in management difficulties in knowledge retrieval  Past knowledge not adequately used to develop and update methodologies and guidelines for improving work efficiency 56 Source: Cross functional interviews with NTPC employees; A.T. Kearney assessment
  57. 57. Why Knowledge Management for NTPC NTPC’s Knowledge Management imperatives are derived from its Strategic Objectives and HR vision of becoming a “Learning Organisation” Strategic Objectives Knowledge Management Imperatives Plan and expeditiously Improve engineering and project construction lead implement power time and reduce cost through efficient re-use of past projects knowledge and experience Operate power Reduce operations and maintenance costs and stations economically improve work practices by sharing ideas and best and efficiently practices across plants Capture external knowledge of regulatory Diversify and grow environment, competitive environment , leverage into new areas experiential knowledge for commercial purposes 57
  58. 58. NTPC’s Knowledge Management imperatives are derived from its Strategic Objectives and HR vision of becoming a “Learning Organisation” Process of creating, structuring and leveraging collective know- Knowledge Management how, experience and wisdom of an organization to improve business performance Why Knowledge Management for NTPC Strategic Objectives Knowledge Management Imperatives Plan and expeditiously Improve engineering and project construction lead implement power time and reduce cost through efficient re-use of past projects knowledge and experience Operate power Reduce operations and maintenance costs and stations economically improve work practices by sharing ideas and best and efficiently practices across plants Capture external knowledge of regulatory Diversify and grow environment, competitive environment , leverage into new areas experiential knowledge for commercial purposes 58
  59. 59. 59