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# Es2

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### Es2

1. 1. Atoms to minerals<br />
2. 2. What is an atom?<br />atom: the smallest part of an element that has all the properties of that element<br />what are some things that atoms have?<br />electrons<br />protons<br />neutrons<br />
3. 3.
4. 4.
5. 5. Atomic Number<br />Atomic number = number of protons in an atom<br />Mass number = average number of protons and neutrons in an atom<br />Atomic number + # of neutrons = mass number<br />
6. 6. Atomic number<br />19<br />K<br />Potassium<br />39.098<br />Atomic number = 19 = # of protons<br />
7. 7. 92<br />U<br />Uranium<br />238<br />
8. 8. Isotopes<br />Isotopes = same element, different # of neutrons<br />Example: carbon<br />Carbon : has 6 protons<br />Carbon 12: has 6 protons, 6 neutrons<br />Carbon 14: has 6 protons, 8 neutrons<br />
9. 9.
10. 10. Compounds<br />Compound: a substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined.<br />Often have different properties <br />Examples: H2O, NaCl<br />
11. 11. Mixtures<br />Can be separated physically.<br />Example: salt water<br />How: evaporation<br />Compound =/= mixture!<br />
12. 12. What is a mineral?<br />A mineral:<br />1. occurs naturally<br />2. is a solid<br />3. has a definite chemical composition (elements are combined in definite proportions)<br />4. its atoms are arranged in a pattern (CRYSTALS)<br />5. is inorganic (not formed by plants, animals, or other organisms)<br />
13. 13. Examples of minerals<br />gold<br />diamond<br />quartz<br />rock salt (halite)<br />Each occurs naturally, is a solid, has a definite chemical composition, is arranged in a pattern, is inorganic<br />
14. 14. a mineral<br />
15. 15.
16. 16. Minerals<br />Minerals may be elements or compounds<br />Most minerals are compounds<br />e.g. quartz = silicon and oxygen<br />Most minerals are made up of a few common elements<br />
17. 17.
18. 18. Ionic bonds in minerals<br />