Ancient Greece


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Ancient Greece

  1. 1. Ancient Greece<br />World History 1<br />
  2. 2. Unlike Mesopotamia and Egypt, Greece is small<br />It consists of a mainland covered with mountains and dozens of islands<br />In fact, Greece is some 90% rock, making farming very difficult.<br />On the other hand, there are very few places more than 50 miles from the sea. <br />Thus, where do you suppose the Greeks had to make their living?<br />The Impact of Geography<br />
  3. 3. Made of Mountains<br />
  4. 4. Through much of modern times, the kingdom of Minos on the island of Crete was myth.<br />Little or no concrete proof existed until the 19th century.<br />However, amateur archaeologist Arthur Evans discovered a rich, sophisticated civilization on the island of Crete.<br />Flourishing from 2700 to 1450 BC, the Minoans were not Greek but influenced Greek culture<br />Island Kingdom<br />
  5. 5. Ancient Crete<br />
  6. 6. Crete was ideally situated to trade with everyone or act as middle man for everyone<br />Crete traded finely crafted pottery, gold, silver for other goods.<br />Cretans borrowed techniques from others to improve their own<br />They traded all over the eastern Mediterranean: Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt and Palestine<br />Merchants and Middlemen<br />
  7. 7. Location, Location, Location<br />
  8. 8. The palace of King Minos in Knossos was a masterpiece of engineering and architecture<br />Equipped with indoor plumbing, workshops for making decorated vases, ivory figures and fine jewelry.<br />Rooms were decorated with murals depicting sporting events and nature scenes<br />Storerooms held gigantic jars of olive oil, wine and grain paid as taxes to the king<br />A Wonder of the Age<br />
  9. 9. Nice place but does it have a view?<br />
  10. 10. In 1450 BC, Crete civilization ended in a sudden catastrophe<br />One theory: a massive tidal wave caused by a massive earthquake on or near the island of Thera consumed the island.<br />The most commonly held belief is that the sudden demise came due to an invasion from mainland Greece<br />The invaders were competitors who decided to muscle out their main rivals<br />Sudden, Mysterious End<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. The Minoans were replaced by their former competitors, the Mycenaeans.<br />The Mycenaeans came from Asia, migrating to Europe and into Greece ca. 1900 BC<br />They intermarried with locals and controlled Greece by 1600 BC<br />Flourishing from 1400 to 1200 BC<br />The new boys on the block<br />
  13. 13. New Power in the Eastern Med. <br />
  14. 14. Mycenaean civilization was made up of powerful monarchies (warlords?)<br />Each had his own fortified palace situated on a hill surrounded by high walls.<br />The warlords likely formed a loose confederation of independent states<br />They were a warrior people who valued heroic deeds in battle<br />Their murals show battle and hunting scenes<br />Society of warriors<br />
  15. 15. The Mycenaeans made use of the trade network inherited from the Minoans<br />Their pottery has been found from Syria to Egypt, Sicily and southern Italy to the west.<br />Their military expanded the reach as well throughout Greece and the Aegean Sea<br />A Wide Reach<br />
  16. 16. Warriors with Artistic Taste<br />
  17. 17. Homer used the Mycenaean Greeks in his description of the Trojan war.<br />The wife of a Mycenaean king was stolen by visiting Trojans<br />To avenge the insult, Kings Agamemnon and Menalaos launched a force of 1,000 ships.<br />The siege of Troy lasted 10 years, ending with the trick of the Trojan Horse and the sack of the city.<br />The Stuff of Legends<br />
  18. 18. Trojan War<br />
  19. 19. By the late 13th century BC, the Mycenaean civilization was tearing itself apart<br />The warlords fought each other while major earthquakes laid waste their cities<br />In the 12th century BC, Greek-speaking Dorians from the north moved in.<br />By 1100 BC, the Mycenaean civilization had collapsed<br />Living and Dying by the Sword<br />
  20. 20. With the fall of the Mycenaeans, population declined, food production dropped.<br />From 1100 to 750 BC there is little in the way of literature to describe what happened<br />Farming did not start to revive until 850 BC<br />Many Greeks emigrated to the islands or Asia Minor in search of land or work. <br />Some trade did come back and iron replaced bronze as the metal for weapons and tools<br />Dark Ages in Greece<br />
  21. 21. Toward the end of the 8th century BC, Greece adopted and modified the Phoenician alphabet<br />This made communication and writing easier<br />Not coincidentally Homer penned the Illiad and the Odyssey at this time<br />These epic poems gave the Greeks a heroic past, with heroes of courage and honor, who strive for excellence.<br />Muse of a new Greece<br />
  22. 22. Alphabet and Hero<br />Greek hero ideal: Perseus<br />
  23. 23. As life began to return to Greece, the polis became the center of life<br />The polis consisted of the city proper plus the surrounding countryside<br />The town, village or city was the center of the polis where political, religious and social activities took place<br />The Polis<br />
  24. 24. The Early Polis<br />
  25. 25. The main gathering place in the polis was the acropolis on top of a hill<br />It served as a refuge in case of attack and as a religious center with temples and public buildings<br />Below the acropolis was the agora, an assembly area and market place<br />These city-states ranged in size from a few square miles to a few hundred.<br />Population varied from a few hundred to hundreds of thousands such as Athens.<br />Center of Greek Life<br />
  26. 26. Centers of the Polis<br />Acropolis – fortress on a hill<br />Agora – central assembly and <br />marketplace<br />
  27. 27. The polis was a community of people with shared identity and goals<br />Usually 3 types of citizen: those with political rights (adult males), no political rights (women and children) and noncitizens (slaves, nonresident aliens and migrant farm workers)<br />Rights also carried responsibilities: each citizen belonged to the state<br />The fierce loyalty to one’s polis bred distrust of others and contributed to Greece’s ruin.<br />More than buildings or land<br />
  28. 28. As the polis grew, so did its need for more men to serve in the military.<br />Before, the military was a noble class of horsemen who also dominated politics<br />Now with the new hoplites (heavy infantry) arranged in a phalanx (rectangular box),<br />A phalanx consisted of soldiers in close order with shields up and long lances, hard to penetrate as long as the line held.<br />Political participation broadened (?)<br />A new military order<br />
  29. 29. Hoplites & the Phalanx<br />
  30. 30. As the poleis grew, it became obvious that the land could not support many people<br />Thus, to find more farmland, provide jobs and create trade,<br />Greeks set out and established colonies throughout the Aegean, Asia Minor, the Black Sea, Sicily, Italy, even France and Spain<br />Each colony became an independent city-state in its own right<br />Expansion by Necessity<br />
  31. 31. A Long Reach<br />
  32. 32. With colonies established throughout the Mediterranean, the money flowed in. <br />Farmers switched from food production to commercial agriculture growing olives and wine for export.<br />The wealth created problems though – a new class of new rich merchants.<br />These merchants were a middle class that wanted a share of political power equal to their wealth. <br />Unintended Consequences<br />
  33. 33. The men in power, military men, landowners had held power for a long time.<br />They were not inclined to share power the new rich<br />The merchants felt they should have a vote and a say in government<br />The merchants allied with the poor who merely wanted debt relief and to keep their land<br />The Immovable Object<br />
  34. 34. So much turmoil was created in this battle for a piece of the pie that<br />A single leader arose who had the trust of the rich and the merchants.<br />They ended the class war, restored order.<br />They cut through the red tape to create public works projects and<br />Try to ease the lot of the poor<br />Battles and then the tyrants<br />
  35. 35. The tyrants were neither all good or all bad.<br />They had the power to do great good or great evil.<br />Some men started off doing good before the power and paranoia went to their heads.<br />Before long the tyrants passed from the scene, the idea of single man rule went against the grain.<br />Good and bad<br />
  36. 36. Two city-states (poleis) exemplify the independence and uniqueness of the concept<br />Sparta is the best example of a city-state which chose a different path.<br />Instead of sending out colonists, they invaded their neighbors and made them slaves.<br />These slaves (helots) were forced to work their former lands for the Spartans<br />An uprising took 20 years to put down<br />Sparta<br />
  37. 37. Ancient Sparta<br />
  38. 38. To prevent another revolt, the Spartans decided to become a military state.<br />Boys started young and stayed until they were 60 years old.<br />Even married they lived in the barracks, training constantly.<br />Spartans became known as the finest, most professional, best disciplined soldiers in the world. <br />And the most feared.<br />A military state<br />
  39. 39. Spartan phalanx<br />
  40. 40. Spartans in battle<br />
  41. 41. Because their men were away, Spartan women had more freedom to run the household<br />They were expected to remain fit so as to bear strong, healthy children to serve the state<br />Most women adhered to the military code, expecting their men to be brave in battle<br />The traditional send off: Come home carrying his shield or on it. Victory or death. <br />Spartan women<br />
  42. 42. Women in Sparta<br />
  43. 43. Government was oligarchical, headed by two kings who lead the army in battle.<br />A group of five ephors supervised education and citizen conduct<br />A council of elders – 28 citizens over 60 and the 2 kings – decided what issues to present to the assembly<br />The assembly did not debate, it only voted.<br />Spartan government<br />
  44. 44. To protect their way of life, Spartans turned their backs on the outside world<br />Foreigners who might bring new ideas were discouraged from visiting<br />Spartans were not allowed to travel abroad except for military reasons<br />Literature, philosophy, the arts were all discouraged <br />The military arts were the only ones allowed.<br />A closed society<br />