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Communicating across culture ppt


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Communicating across culture ppt

  1. 1. 1Chapter 4COMMUNICATION ACROSSCULTUREGroup # 4Eraj ShamimMaryam ZaidiMubashra AslamNazia KhanSalka FareedRaheel Khan
  2. 2. What is Communication?“Communication describes theprocess of sharing meaning bytransmitting messages throughmedia such as words, behavior,or material artifacts.”Three Basic Steps : Individual Group OrganizationPrentice Hall 2003Chapter 42
  3. 3. CROSS- cultural COMMUNICATION(also frequently referred toas intercultural communication)“Its seek to understand how peoplefrom different countries and culturesbehave, communicate and perceivethe world around them cultures”Prentice Hall 2003Chapter 43
  4. 4. The Communication ProcessPrentice Hall 2003Chapter 44
  5. 5. Noise“Anything that interferes with,slows down, or reducesthe clarity or accuracy of acommunication. ”Noise can be external orinternal, and it can disrupt thecommunication process at anypoint.Prentice Hall 20035Chapter 4
  6. 6. Importance of Cross-CulturalCommunicationCross-cultural communication in businesshappens between any two companiesregardless of their location. To effectproductive business relationships, everyorganization needs to be sensitive to thepotential issues of cross-culturalcommunication6
  7. 7. 1. Common Ground:When a company engages in cross-cultural communication, the first thing to establish isthe common ground with the new business partner. It begins with the most effective waysto communicate. Breaking through on common ground can help the two sides to establisha productive dialogue that will enhance the business relationship.2. Informational Context:Different corporate cultures require different levels of information. Developing the properinformational context is critical when communicating with a new business partner, and itbegins by understanding the work culture of your business partner and how information isprocessed.Prentice Hall 20037
  8. 8. 3. Trust:When a new business partner takes the time and effort to establish good cross-culturalcommunication, it helps to elevate the level of trust and respect between the two partners.Respect for other companies business processes is critical in establishing an efficient workrelationship.4. Quality:Working within the guidelines of a new business partners corporate culture helps toimprove communication at all levels of both organizations. The quality of theinformation improves when it is delivered in a manner that each company isaccustomed to. Not only does the quality of the information passed between the twocompanies improve, but the quality of the relationship with clients and othervendors that are affected by the relationship also improves.Prentice Hall 2003Chapter 48
  9. 9. Cultural Variables AffectingCommunicationOn a different level it is also useful to be aware of culturalvariables that can affect the communication process byinfluencing a person’s perceptions. Some of thesevariables have been identified.1. Attitude2. Social organizations3. Thought patterns4. Roles5. Language6. Non-verbal communication7. TimePrentice Hall 2003Chapter 49
  10. 10. 1. Attitudes:Attitudes underlie the way we behave and communicate and theway we interpret messages from other people. Ethnocentricattitudes are a particular source of noise in cross-culturalcommunication.2. Social Organization:Our perceptions can be influenced by differences in values,approach, or priorities relative to the kind of social organizationsto which we belong.Prentice Hall 2003Chapter 410
  11. 11. 3. Thought PatternsEvery culture have different thought patterns and logics towardsanything vision and traditions are different from one another. Mostlydepend on experience education and family background.4. Roles: (manager’s perception)Manager reflects the culture of its own organization. How managerperceive is very important, he should properly understood all theobjectives. Wrong perception result in miscommunicationPrentice Hall 2003Chapter 411
  12. 12. 5. Language:Spoken or written language is a frequent cause ofmiscommunication. accurate translation is a bridge to covercultural gaps. language also conveys cultural and socialunderstandings.6. Time:Another variable that communicates culture is the way peopleregard and use time. Mono-chronic time systemsIt is related to time commitment . Poly-chronic time systems:Rather than giving importance to time this system gives priorityto persons.Prentice Hall 2003Chapter 412
  13. 13. 7. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION:Behavior that communicates without words. As it is said:“A picture is worth a thousand words”It includes:1. Kinesics behavior2. Proxemics3. Paralanguage4. Object/material13
  14. 14. 1. Kinesics behavior:It refers to communication throughbody movement, postures, facialexpressions, gestures and eyecontact.2. Proxemics:It deals with the influence ofpower and space incommunication.High contact (minimizing thegaps and good understanding)Low contact(it prefers less involvement witheach other)Prentice Hall 2003Chapter 414
  15. 15. 3. Paralanguage:It refers to how something issaid rather than the content. fore.g. The rate and tone ofspeech.4. Object/material:Environment speaks througheffects and material as howmuch object or productattracts the person. Such asoffice design, furniture,appearance, etc.Prentice Hall 2003Chapter 415
  16. 16. Managing Cross-CulturalCommunicationStep towards effective inter cultural communication includes1. Developing cultural sensitivity2. Careful encoding3. Selective transmission4. Careful decoding of feedback5. Follow-up actions16
  17. 17. 1. Cultural Sensitivity :Encode the message in a form that will most likely be understoodas it is intendedThis means the manager must:Be aware of their own cultureThe recipient’s cultureThe expectations surrounding the situation17
  18. 18. 2. Careful Encoding :The sender must consider the receiver’s frame of reference tomake the best choice regardingWordsPicturesGesturesRemember that language translation is only part of the process,consider the nonverbal language as well18
  19. 19. 3. Selective Transmission :The channel medium should be chosen after considering:The nature of the messageLevel of importanceContext and expectations of the receiverTiming involvedPersonal interactions19
  20. 20. 4. Careful Decoding of Feedback:Best means for obtaining accurate feedback is face-to-faceinteractionsBest means for avoiding miscommunication is to improve your ownlistening and observation skillsThree types of miscommunications:Receiver misinterpreted the messageReceiver encoded response incorrectlySender misinterprets the feedback20
  21. 21. 5. Appropriate Follow-Up Actions:(eye contact, posture,tone, etc)Interaction posture – ability to respond in a descriptive, non-evaluative, and non-judgmental wayOrientation to knowledge – understand that your beliefs andperceptions are only valid for you and not everyone elseEmpathy21
  22. 22. Cultural conflictJonathan H. Turner defines it as:“Differences in cultural valuesand beliefs that place people atodds with one another".In another words, conflict mayarise whenever there are culturaldifferences.Prentice Hall 2003Chapter 422
  23. 23. Causes of Conflict Misunderstandings through language, attitude and way ofcommunication. Cultural ignorance and insensitivity Lack of awareness of different societal lifestyle practices Differences in cultural practice Differences in perceptionMisinterpretation can take placePrentice Hall 2003Chapter 423
  24. 24. Achieving cross-culturalcommunication effectiveness24
  25. 25. ConclusionEffective cross culture communication is a vital skill for internationalmanagers and domestic managers of multi cultural work forcesbecause miscommunication is much more likely to occur amongpeople from different countries or racial backgrounds that amongthose from similar background. So it is important to be alert to howculture is reflected in communication.25
  26. 26. Prentice Hall 2003Chapter 426