Example Organisms      Protists
Giardia intestilanis                                                    • A diplomonad parasite                           ...
Trypanosoma brucei                                                  • Protists of the kinetoplastids have                 ...
Trichomonas vaginalis                                                                            • Trichomonas vaginalis i...
Plasmodium malariae                                                                      • This important pathogen        ...
Phytophthora infestens                                                                             • This oomycete is part...
Pfiesteria shumwayae                                                                           • Pfiesteria shumwayae is a...
Globigerina falconensis                                                                                   • This radiolari...
Postelsia palmaeformis                                                                  • More commonly known as          ...
Porphyra yezoensis                                                              • Porphyra is a multicellular             ...
Chlamydomonas nivalis                                                                       • The simplest chlorophytes of...
Ulva lactuca                                                                       • This edible seaweed has a            ...
Caulerpa prolifera                                                                        • Caulerpa, is an intertidal    ...
Entamoeba Histolytica                                                           • Humans are host to at leas              ...
Dictyostelium discoideum                                                                          • Dictyostelium, a cellu...
Fuligo septica                                                                 • Fuligo septica, better known             ...
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  1. 1. Example Organisms Protists
  2. 2. Giardia intestilanis • A diplomonad parasite that can infect people when they drink water contaminated with feces containing the cysts of the parasite. Drinking such water – even from a seemingly pristine stream – can cause severe diarrhea. Boiling the water kills the parasite.CC image via http://abouthealt-h.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Giardia-Intestinalis5.jpg
  3. 3. Trypanosoma brucei • Protists of the kinetoplastids have a single, large mitochondrion that contains an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast. These protists include species that feed on prokaryotes in freshwater, marine, and moist terrestrial ecosystems, as well as species that parasitze animals, plants, and other protists. One example, Trypanosoma brucei causes sleeping sickness in humans, a neurological disease that is invariably fatal if it is not treated. The trypanosomes infect humans via the bite of a carrier organism, the African tsetse fly.CC image via http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Trypanosoma_sp._PHIL_613_lores.jpg
  4. 4. Trichomonas vaginalis • Trichomonas vaginalis is the best known parabasalid (Excavates that have reduced mitochondria and generate some energy anaerobically, releasing hydrogen gas as a by- product). T. vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite that infects some 5 million people every year. It moves along the mucus-coated lining of the human rproductive and urinary tracts by moving its flagella and by undulating part of its plasma membrane.• CC image via http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/148029/530wm/C0085110- Trichomonas_Vaginalis_SEM-SPL.jpg
  5. 5. Plasmodium malariae • This important pathogen is part of the Chromalveolata supergroup. It is significant because it causes malaria among humans. It causes fevers of three-day intervals; hence it is commonly called quartan malaria.• CC image via http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mature_Plasmodium_malariae_sc hizont_PHIL_2715_lores.jpg
  6. 6. Phytophthora infestens • This oomycete is part of the Chromalveolata supergroup. It is known for causing a potato disease known as “late blight” which turns the stalk and stem of potato plants to black slime. Late blight contributed to the devastating potato famine in 19th century Ireland, in which millions of people died and were forced to• CC image via http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/images/phy-oo.gif leave Ireland.
  7. 7. Pfiesteria shumwayae • Pfiesteria shumwayae is a dinoflagellate that beats its spiral flagellum, which lies in a groove that encircles the cell, makes this alveolate spin. The dinoflagellates are characterized by cells that are reinforced by cellulose plates. Two flagella located in perpendicular grooves in this “armor” make dinoflagellates spin as they• CC image via http://www.vims.edu/research/departments/eaah/programs/pfiesteria_re move through the water. search/resources/images/index.php
  8. 8. Globigerina falconensis • This radiolarian’s “needles” are thin pseudopia. The pseudopia of these mostly marine protists radiate from the central body and are reinforced by bundles of microtubules. The microtubules are covered by a thin layer of cytoplasm, which engulfs smaller microorganisms that become attached to the pseudopodia. In some species, during the day, the algae are transported to the tips of the pseudopia where they can photosynthesize, and drawn back in for the night.• CC image via http://skepticwonder.fieldofscience.com/2009/11/sunday-protist- assorted-forams.html
  9. 9. Postelsia palmaeformis • More commonly known as the sea palm, Postelsia palmaeformis lives on rocks along the coas of the northwestern United States and Western Canada. The term thallus refers to an algal body that is plantlike, but lacks true roots, stems, and leaves. The thallus of this brown alga is well adapted to maintaining a firm foothold despite the• CC image via http://www.botany.ubc.ca/martone/postelsia.jpg crashing surf.
  10. 10. Porphyra yezoensis • Porphyra is a multicellular red algae, commonly referred to as seaweed, in the Archaeplastida supergroup. Porphyra (Japonese “Nori”) are the paper-thin, glossy sheets used to make a mineral-rich wrap for rice, seafood, and vegetables in sushi. The harvested seaweed is spread on bamboo screens• CC image via http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nori.jpg to dry into the crispy sheets.
  11. 11. Chlamydomonas nivalis • The simplest chlorophytes of green algae are unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas, which resemble the gametes and zoospores of more complex chlorophytes. Some chlorophytes have even adapted to snowy habitats. Chlamydomonas nivalis can form dense algal blooms on high-altitude glaciers and snowfields, where its reddish pigments produce an effect• CC image via called “watermelon snow”. http://www.nicerweb.com/bio1903/Locked/media/ch28/28_29Watermelo nSnow.jpg
  12. 12. Ulva lactuca • This edible seaweed has a multicellular thallus differentiated into leaflike blades. Its rootlike holdfast anchors the alga against turbulent waves and tides. The formation of true multicellular bodies by cell division and differentiation demonstrates how larger size and greater complexity evolved in choroplasts.• CC image via http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ulva_lactuca.jpeg
  13. 13. Caulerpa prolifera • Caulerpa, is an intertidal chlorophyte in the green algae subgroup of Archaeplastida. The branched filaments lack cross walls, and thus are multinucleate. In effect, the thallus is one huge supercells. This repeated division of nuclei with no cytoplasmic division contributed to the evolution of larger and more complex choropytes.• CC image via http://www.reefcorner.com/images/FeatherCaulerpa.jpg
  14. 14. Entamoeba Histolytica • Humans are host to at leas six species of Entamoeba, but only one, E. Histolytica, is known to be pathogenic. E. Histolytica causes amebic dysentery and is spread via contaminated drinking water, food, or eating utensils. Responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide every year, the disease is the third-leading cause of death due to• CC image via http://elsalvadorexperience.tumblr.com/ eukaryotic parasites, after malaria and schistosomiasis.
  15. 15. Dictyostelium discoideum • Dictyostelium, a cellular slime mold, is an individual organism. The feeding stage of these organisms consists of solitary cells that function individually, but when food is depleted, the cells form an aggregate that functions as a unit. Cellular slime molds differ from plasmodial slime molds in• CC image via being haploid organisms. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dictyostelium_Fruiting_Bodies.JPG
  16. 16. Fuligo septica • Fuligo septica, better known as the dog vomit slime mold, is part of the subgroup Amoebozoans. Plasmodial slime molds form a single mass of cytoplasm, called a plasmodium, that is undivided and that contains many diploid nuclei. This supercell is the product of mitotic nuclear divisions that are not followed by• CC image via cytokinesis. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dog_vomit_slime_mold.jpg