Kulkarni Glacier August27 Revised

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MONITORING OF HIMALAYAN GLACIERS
AND SNOW COVER

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  • Date: 13 November 2004
  • Kulkarni Glacier August27 Revised

    1. 1. MONITORING OF HIMALAYAN GLACIERS AND SNOW COVER   ANIL V. KULKARNI   PROJECT COORDINATOR SNOW AND GLACIER PROJECT   SPACE APPLICATIONS CENTRE INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION AHMEDABAD-380015, INDIA
    2. 2. <ul><li>Himalayas has one of the largest concentration of glacier-stored water out side the Polar Regions. Himalayas has approx. 33,000 sq km area under glaciers. </li></ul><ul><li>During winter large areas of Himalayas covered by seasonal snow. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic information about snow and glaciers is difficult to obtain due to inaccessible terrain and extreme weather conditions. Satellite remote sensing with high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution can provide vital information about various aspects of snow and glaciers. </li></ul>IMPORTANCE OF SNOW AND GLACIERS
    3. 3. GLACIATION HISTORY OF THE EARTH The Earth has experienced three major and four inter glacier periods in last 350 Thousand years. During interglacial period the atmospheric temperature was higher and it was well synchronized with atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. However, during peak of paleo interglacial period, concentration of carbon dioxide was lower than 300 ppm and present concentration is around 380 ppm.
    4. 4. GEOMORPHOLOGY OF HIMALAYAN GLACIERS: SAMUDRA TAPU GLACIER, H.P., INDIA Tributary glacier Ablation area Accumulation area Moraine Moraine-dammed lake
    5. 5. IRS LISS IV 26 Aug. 2008 Zanskar basin (J & K) lake Ablation area Accumulation area Lateral moraine Snow line Glacier boundary Tributary glacier Snout GLACIER FEATURES
    6. 6. SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE OF SNOW, ICE AND OTHER FEATURES (Kulkarni et. al. 2007)
    7. 7. DISRIBUTION OF GLACIERS IN THE HIMALAYA (FROM: Kulkarni et. al., 1991, 1996, 2005) 5038 3900 ----- Total 1420 1186 2001 Chenab (H.P.) 229 108 1996 Dhauli Ganga (Uttarakhand) 692 284 1997 Tista (Sikkim) 2697 2322 1993 Satluj (H.P.) Areal extent ( sq km ) Number of glaciers, glacierets snowfield Year of Data Basin 23,300 1702 1988 250000 Indian Himalaya Areal extent (sq km) Glacier number Year of Data Scale Basin
    8. 8. AREA ALTITUDE DISTRIBUTION Snow line altitude at the end of ablation season Snow line altitude at the end of ablation season RETREAT OF PARBATI GLACIER Dead ice zone LISS-III and PAN1998 Dead ice zone LISS-IV: 2004 49 784 Loss 1990-2006 38 76 2006 43 130 2004 97 97 0.84 36.87 2001 11 22 0.48 37.73 2000 57 459 1.93 38.21 1998 ---- ----- 40.14 1990 Rate m/yr. Cumulative loss in length (m) Loss in area (sq. km) Area (sq. km) Year
    9. 9. RETREAT OF GLACIERS IN INDIAN HIMALAYA Parbati (1990-06) Sara Umaga (1989-2004) Gangotri (1976-1996) Dokriani Bamak (1991-2007) Hamta (1961-2005) Samudra Tapu (1993-2000) Pindari (1966-2007)
    10. 10. SAMUDRA TAPU GLACIER, HIMACHAL PRADESH IRS LISS IV IMAGERY SEPTEMBER 16, 2006
    11. 11. ANNUAL LOSS OF GLACIER AREA IN INDIAN HIMALAYA 1962 - 2001/4 116 111 253 189 166 90 19 126 187 60 57 Mean rate of area loss 0.39 % per year
    12. 12. MOUNTAIN GLACIER RETREAT IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE WORLD From: Racoviteanu et al. 2008
    13. 13. FRAGMENTATION OF GLACIER: CHENAB
    14. 14. FRAGMENTATION OF GLACIERS CHENAB BASIN (Kulkarni et al 2007)
    15. 15. CAUSES OF FRAGMENTATION Ice melt near Gomukh, Gangotri glacier. Less melt near Gomukh. (Source: Maruthi et.al., 2003) Glacier mass balance for 228 glaciers distributed through out the globe, Cumulative mean ice loss is 20 m w.e. out of 100 m. Disintegrating many glaciers (Zemp et al., 2009) Fragmentation will have profound impact on glacial retreat. It effectively reduces depth, response time and accelerates retreat.
    16. 16. GLACIERS IN PARBATI BASIN EFFECT OF FRAGMENTATION ON RETREAT: CHENAB 1962 2004 52H12003 52H12004 Glacial ice Fragmentation will have profound impact on glacial retreat. It effectively reduces depth, response time and accelerates retreat.
    17. 17. Chandra Sept. 6, 5 Sept. 6, 5 GLACIERS ZERO AAR: BHAGA: 18 CHANDRA: 4 BASPA 4 MEAN SP. MASS BALANCE: 19 GLACIRS BASPA BASIN 2001: - 40 cm 2002: -78 cm 2004: -57 cm Loss of glacial ice: 0.11735 cu km/year DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL TO ESTIMATE MASS BALANCE: BASPA BASIN (KULKARNI 1992, 2004)
    18. 18. CHANGES IN MASS BALANCE IN HIMALAYA BASPA: Snowline shift 4900- 5200 m between 1976 TO 2006 AAR FROM 0.7 TO 0.3. In the Himalaya no systematic record is available. Maximum alt. of snow line is shifted from 4800 m to 5200 m from mid 1980 to 2008. This is significantly affecting mass balance
    19. 19. CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE AND PRECEPITATION IN WESTERN HIMALAYA From: Shekhar et. al., 2009
    20. 20. MODELING GLACIAL CHANGES PARBATI GLACIER Kulkarni et al., Current Science 88(11), 2005 PREDICTIONS VALIDATION 21 years Estimated response time from 2001 1461 m (69 m/y) Estimated loss in glacial length from 2001 to 2022 206 m (41 m/y) Measured loss in glacial length from 2001 to 2006 10120 m Measured glacier length in 2001 -6 m/year Measured rate of melting at snout 126 m Estimated depth of glacier in 2001 -86 cm Estimated glacial mass balance 2001 0.138 Accumulation Area Ratio in 2001 3.56 km 2 Accumulation area in 2001 23.7 km 2 Arial extent of glacier in 2001 OBSERVATIONS
    21. 21. SNOW STUDIES
    22. 22. SNOW COVER MONITORING USING NDSI METHOD DISCRIMINATION of SNOW and CLOUDs, SNOW UNDER MOUNTAIN SHADOW FCC FCC NDSI
    23. 23. Snow accumulation and ablation pattern in basins located in different parts of Himalaya Mean snow fall Western Himalaya: 2004-5: 739 cm; 2005-6: 606 cm; 2006-7: 596 cm
    24. 24. SNOW DEPLETION CURVE:BEAS BASIN ALTITUDE 3000-3600 m INCREASE IN STREAM RUNOFF OF BASPA BASIN FOR DECEMBER BETWEEN 1966 TO 1993 IS FROM 8 TO 14 CUMECS (Kulkarni et. al. 2002 and 2003)
    25. 25. DEVELOPMENT OF SNOW AND GLACIER MELT RUNOFF MODEL FOR MICRO AND MINI RIVER BASINS (Kulkarni et. al. 2002)
    26. 26. SEASONAL SNOW AND GLACIER MELT RUNOFF MODELING (Pre-feasibility investigation, Autumn, winter, summer, Monsoon ) Q=c{a(T*G)}+c{S*W)-(M*Sw)} + (c*P*B) Where, Q = Average seasonal runoff (cu m/s) C = Runoff coefficient a = Melt factor (cm/degree C.d) T = Average seasonal degree-day (degree.day) G = Area of snow and glaciers (sq km) S = Area of seasonal snow (sq km) W = Water equivalent of winter snow fall (m) M = Winter snow melt (m) Sw= Snow cover in winter P = Average seasonal rainfall (m) B = Basin area without snow/glacier (sq m)
    27. 27. Validation of snow and glacier melt runoff model: Wangar Gad basin (Rathore and Kulkarni, 2009 in press) 3.4 % 4.7 % 4.1 % 4.9 %
    28. 28. Estimated seasonal runoff (cumecs) in Wangar Gad basin due to rise in temperature by 1oC (Rathore and Kulkarni, 2009 in press) Autumn Winter Summer Monsoon -20 % -18 % -8 % -28 %
    29. 29. <ul><li>SALIENT OBSERVATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Retreat of 1317 glaciers 11 basins suggest 16 % loss in area from 1962. </li></ul><ul><li>Mean of glacial extent reduced from 1.4 to 0.32 sq km. Number of glaciers increased due to fragmentation but extent is reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Snow line at the end of summer changed from 4900 m to 5300 m from 1970. Many glaciers are without accumulation area and may experience terminal retreat due to lack of formation of new ice. </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale melting and retreat of seasonal snow was observed in basins like Ravi throughout the winter. In high altitude basins like Baspa and Bhaga, large scale retreat was observed in beginning of winter. Snow depletion curve in Beas basin suggest early and rapid melting of snow cover. </li></ul><ul><li>Average stream runoff of Baspa river in December was increased by 75 per cent from 1970. </li></ul>
    30. 30. THANKS TERMINUS OF PARBATI GLACIER

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