Ambuj Technology Cooperation In The Greenhouse A Sagar 28 08 09


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Technology cooperation in the greenhouse?

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Ambuj Technology Cooperation In The Greenhouse A Sagar 28 08 09

  1. 1. Technology cooperation in the greenhouse? Ambuj Sagar Vipula and Mahesh Chaturvedi Professor of Policy Studies Indian Institute of Technology Delhi South Asian Media Briefing Workshop on Climate Change Center for Science and Environment August 28, 2009
  2. 2. Tech coop in the greenhouse
  3. 3. Tech coop in the greenhouse <ul><li>Non-Annex-I countries accounted for almost 50% of the world’s total primary energy supply (TPES) (with about 80% of the world’s population). </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Annex-I countries rely heavily on fossil fuels (especially coal and petroleum) and this dependence is increasing (Coal: China 73% of TPES*; India: 55%) </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer countries generally have less efficient energy economies and systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Annex-I countries still obtain almost 18% of their energy supply from combustible renewables and biomass (China: ~ 12%; India: ~ 30%). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Tech coop in the greenhouse Key energy indicators Source: IEA
  5. 5. Tech Coop in the greenhouse Source: IEA
  6. 6. Tech coop in the greenhouse <ul><li>Improved, adequate, and affordable energy services are necessary for meeting the Millennium Development Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and Income Poverty Reduction (MDG Target 1) </li></ul><ul><li>(income generation opportunities, reduced costs of energy services) </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger (MDG Target 2) </li></ul><ul><li>(improved agricultural practices, cooking) </li></ul><ul><li>Education (MDG Target 3) </li></ul><ul><li>(lighting, availability of time) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Equality (MDG Target 4) </li></ul><ul><li>(gathering fuelwood, exposure to pollution) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tech coop in the greenhouse <ul><li>Improved and adequate energy services are necessary for meeting the MDGs (contd): </li></ul><ul><li>Health (MDG Targets 5–8) </li></ul><ul><li>(morbidity and mortality from indoor air pollution; health care infrastructure; provision of health information) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Sustainability (MDG Target 9) </li></ul><ul><li>(deforestation, local and global air pollution, water pollution) </li></ul><ul><li>Water Supply and Sanitation (MDG Target 10) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Energy Access and Human Development Source: UNDP
  9. 9. Household cooking: impacts -- Burden of fuel collection falls mainly upon women and children; up to 3–4 hours gathering fuel resources every day -- Indoor air pollution: estimated annual excess mortality about 1.6 million worldwide; WHO estimates that indoor air pollution from biomass sixth-largest health risk factor in developing countries, responsible for about 38 million disability-adjusted lost years -- Greater cost for the same amount of useful energy services, given inefficient energy-conversion devices -- Products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from traditional biomass burning have significant global warming implications Energy Access and Human Development
  10. 10. Tech coop in the greenhouse <ul><li>The energy challenges facing developing countries can broadly be categorized into three inter-related areas: </li></ul><ul><li>• Expansion of affordable energy supply and services (‘adequacy’) </li></ul><ul><li>• Improving the efficiency of conversion of energy supply into energy services (‘efficiency’) </li></ul><ul><li>• Replacing traditional energy technologies by modern, clean energy technologies (‘modernity’) </li></ul><ul><li>How to meet these challenges while advancing the climate change AND sustainable development agendas? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tech coop in the greenhouse <ul><li>Broad categorization of technology needs in developing countries pertain to: </li></ul><ul><li>• Accelerating transfer of commercial and emerging technologies (economics, other barriers) </li></ul><ul><li>• Adaptation of technologies to local conditions, e.g., building technologies </li></ul><ul><li>• Development and diffusion of technologies for “unmet” needs, e.g., improved cookstoves, small-scale biomass gasifiers, solar lanterns, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term technology needs </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tech coop in the greenhouse <ul><li>1. Financial and other technical assistance for transferable technologies: </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary for a technological transition in non-Annex-I countries </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of financial assistance among countries? </li></ul><ul><li>Graduated financial assistance that depends on per-capita GDP of recipient country? </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge sharing for enhancing deployment, where non-economic barriers hinder the deployment of technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to IPRs vs. access to technologies at economically acceptable terms? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Tech coop in the greenhouse <ul><li>2. Accelerate technology deployment in Annex I countries: </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted policies aimed at key technologies (e.g., IGCC) need to be implemented sooner rather than later to reduce costs and technical risks </li></ul><ul><li>3. Technical cooperation for adaptation of technologies and development of technologies for “unmet” needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Must build local capacity so that this can be done on a sustained basis, since climate change long-term problem </li></ul><ul><li>But must go beyond just climate change – ensure that sustainable development is not sidelined </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tech coop in the greenhouse <ul><li>Joint energy innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative technical program that is driven by technology needs of developing countries rather than the technology agenda of industrialized countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Need technology innovation that is shaped by local needs and rooted in local context to meet energy AND climate challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Need energy-technology development & diffusion capacity in developing countries in order to meet these challenges effectively and efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>=> Energy Innovation Centers (EICs) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Range of EIC activities: </li></ul><ul><li>State-of-art engineering product development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refinement and adaptation of commercial technologies to meet local conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint applied R&D on emerging technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of technologies and products to advance provision of energy services for energy poor and rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of appropriate business models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration and development of innovative delivery models to overcome lack of ‘traditional markets’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training entrepreneurs, incubating enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity building: create local capability in technical and business skills, facilitating networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy & market research/analysis: support regulatory and policy development </li></ul>Tech coop in the greenhouse