Editing: Part 2 - Styles

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Part 2 of 2. An introduction to some of the stylistic and aesthetic techniques and staples of film editing.

Republished with permission from its original owners and creators: Karen Carpenter and the rest of the CSUN faculty.

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Editing: Part 2 - Styles

  1. 1. Editing Styles: The patterned use of transitions, matches and duration can be identified as a cinematic style. Transitions: Straight cut Jump cut Dissolve Wipe Insert Cross-cutting Shot/ReverseMatches: Duration:Graphic Match Long takeMatched Action Overlapping EditingEyeline Match Rhythm
  2. 2. Continuity EditingA system of cutting to maintain continuous and clear narrative action.Continuity editing relies upon matching screen direction, position, andtemporal relations from shot to shot. The film supports the viewersassumption that space and time are connected between successiveshots.Continuity editing/shooting techniques are:Long takeShot/Reverse ShotEyeline matchesMatched action180* rule - unless the transition is smoothed by a POV shot or a reestablishing shot.30* rule
  3. 3. Continuity EditingThe basic purpose of the continuity system is to create a smooth flowfrom shot to shot without jarring visual inconsistencies.
  4. 4. MontageAn approach to editing developed by the Soviet filmmakers of the 1920s; it emphasizesdynamic, often discontinuous, relationships between shots and the juxtaposition ofimages to create ideas not present in either shot by itself.The Godfather (1973) - a famous sequence of Michael attending his sons baptism areintercut with the brutal killings of his rivals. Rather than stressing a simultaneous seriesof the events the montage suggests Michaels dual nature and commitment to both his"families”, through religion and violence.
  5. 5. Montage The Kuleshov effect occurs when two shots are joined creating, meaning, significance, emotional impact and tone, but are unable to have a similar effect when viewed without the other.Screen The Graduate
  6. 6. ELLIPTICAL EDITING is an editing technique that presents anaction in such a way that it consumes less time on screen than it does inthe story. Shot transitions that omit parts of an event, cause an ellipsesin plot and story duration. In this clip from Traffic (2000), a party isrendered through elliptical editing (achieved with dissolves and jumpcuts) in order to both shorten the time and suggest the charactersrambling mental states.
  7. 7. The Editing ProcessA film editor is a person whopractices film editing byassembling footage into acoherent film. Film editorsoften are responsible forpulling together all of theelements of story, dialogue,music, sound effects, visualeffects, rhythm and pace ofa film. In the making of afilm, the editors play adynamic and creative role.
  8. 8. The editors’ assembly of parts must be done with • Artistic Sensitivity • Perception • Aesthetic Judgment • Clear understanding of the Director’s intentions
  9. 9. SelectsAfter a film is shot and processed, film and video editors studyfootage, select the best shots, and assemble them in the mosteffective way. Their goal is to create dramatic continuity and theright pace for the desired mood. Screen Traffic clip
  10. 10. Selects1. Upload/digitize the footage that’s been shot. Do we need to talk aboutsetting scratch disks? And naming clips?2. Create “bins” for the footage. Some Editors put every scene in its ownbin; but you can organize in anyway that’s most comfortable.3. Open a sequence(s) - Some Editors put every scene in its ownsequence, some editors like the entire film in one sequence. I like to usea sequence for all scenes in a single location/time and then combinethese into one sequence after the rough cut, but you can organize inanyway that’s most comfortable.4. A take that is considered “bad” for some element (performance,lighting, etc.) might have a usable section for a cutaway or insert.
  11. 11. AssemblyEditors first organize the footage and then structure the sequence of the filmby splicing and re-splicing the best shots. They must have a good eye andunderstand the subject of the film and the director’s intentions.1. Put the shots in order with the best takes.2. Look at which takes will cut and those that will not.If you don’t have a shot that will cut you can re-shoot (recommended) or youcan find a creative solution to make a transition (sound and/or image) that willenhance and not hinder the narrative.
  12. 12. Rough CutThe rough cut is the first attempt atshaping the film. Many editorsprefer to edit rough cuts on thelong side in order to try out shotsand scenes, even if they’requestionable and likely to be cutout later. As the movie continuesto edited and refine, you may haveseveral rough cuts.1. Transitions are applied (thoughthey may change).2. Sound and music is “synced” tothe images.
  13. 13. Fine CutWhen the basic scene order is in place and you start polishingindividual sequences and transitions, this is called fine cutting. It’soften easier to fine-cut and pace individual scenes after you’ve seenthe overall flow of the rough cut.Some people prefer to fine-cut from the start of editing instead ofmaking a rough cut. Even though this approach requires more time tocomplete the first cut, you may be better able to judge the editing.
  14. 14. Fine Cut1. Transitions (video/audio) polished2. Sound mix3. Titles and credits4. Color correction (if necessary)
  15. 15. Fine CutView the movie on a big screen during the editing process. Sometimesthe pace of the movie changes, wide shots that might have seemed dullactually reveal interesting details, close-ups might seem over-powering.Cuts that draw the eye’s attention from one side of a screen to the othermay seem to jarring.
  16. 16. Fine CutWatching the movie with an audience will help determine whethersomething in the movie is confusing, boring or doesn’t work.
  17. 17. The final cut is the finished edit of a film, approved by the director andthe producer. This is what the audience sees.
  18. 18. Sources:http://classes.yale.edu/film-analysis/htmfiles/intro.htmwww.tadvin.ir/images/film-editing2.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eyeline_match

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