New technology for converting low grade heat into electricity


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New technology for converting low grade heat into electricity

  1. 1. New Technologies for Low- grade Heat Power Engineering
  2. 2. Novel technology for low-grade heat conversion into electricity For solar power stations: higher efficiency and lower BOMFor thermal power For geothermal powerplants: power capacity plants: Flexible deploymentincrease and co-generation and better scalability of powerby waste heat recycling capacity
  3. 3. Introduction: Heat Conversion IdeaWe reverse the “roulette wheel” of the gas cycle in hydraulic accumulators. To gainsome more fluid power in each conversion cycle instead of losing it in conventionalrecuperative cycles in accumulators
  4. 4. Core technology – Thermo- Pneumo-Hydraulic Conversion (TPHC) Novel heat engine based on hydraulic accumulators and heat exchangers:Transformation of heat from any external source of energy directly into fluid power.
  5. 5. Core technology (for fluid power people)stage 1 stage 2 oil flowstage 3 stage 4 hot gas flow cold gas flow
  6. 6. TPHC cycle put simple: Stroke 1 Heat exchanger Gas Compression HOT COLD Liquid Liquid Total power in
  7. 7. TPHC cycle put simple : Stroke 2 dQ1 heat in Heat w Ga exchanger s flo s flo Ga w Gas Gas transfer Gas COLD HOT Liquid Liquid Total power out Heat in
  8. 8. TPHC cycle put simple : Stroke 3 Heat exchanger Gas Expansion COLD HOT Liquid Liquid Total power out
  9. 9. TPHC cycle put simple : Stroke 4 dQ2 Heat out Heat Ga f low exchanger s flo G as w Gas Gas transfer Gas COLD HOT Liquid Liquid Total power in Heat out
  10. 10. Competing technologies• Thermo-Electrical Conversion (TEC)• Evaporative cycle conversion: – Water Rankine Cycle (WRC), – Water-Ammonia Rankine Cycle (Kalina cycle), – Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)• Stirling Cycle EnginesNone of competing technologies offer a combination of:• High efficiency in wide temperature range• High power density• Low installation and operation costs
  11. 11. Key Competitive Advantages: Manufacturing and operation• Simplicity of operation: one part always hot, another always cold (like external combustion engine)• Simplicity of manufacturing: • Mostly standard and modified standard fluid power components used • Low BOM: steel, nitrogen and oil are not in deficiency, no need of scarce materials
  12. 12. Key Competitive Advantages: Efficiency• Low operational temperature gradient: 80 degree temperature difference between hot and cold media enough for operation• Wide temperature range: coolant temperature from - 50 to +100 C• High power density• Low energy transformation losses: Directly from gas expansion into Fluid Power
  13. 13. Competitive technologies comparison advantages disadvantagesWater high power capacity, reasonable operable for T>450C, complexity ofRankene efficiency the system, bulky equipment, high costWater- higher efficiency (compare to WRC) higher complexity (compare toAmmonia WRC)RankeneOrganic higher efficiency (compare to WRC), each system is optimized forRankene operable for T<450C specific working temperatures, low power densityThermo- compactness, direct conversion to low efficiency, high BOM, rareElectric electricity, very wide range of materials requiredConversion temperature differences for utilization, wide range of power capacityTPHC higher efficiency (compare to ORC), unconventional technology, fluid operable for 80C<T<350C, wide power experience required for range of coolant temperatures, high maintenance power density, low BOM
  14. 14. Efficiency estimate Technology Tmax(Tmin) C Pmax/Pmin ηGAS ηtotal TPHC 100 (15) 2 20% 15 % TPHC 300 (15) 3 40% 32 % ORC 120 (20) 13% 10 % ORC 300 (30) 25% 20 % TEC 100 (15) 3% TEC 300 (15) 8% ηGAS – efficiency of gas cycle ηtotal – total efficiency ORC – Organic Rankine Cycle, TEC – thermoelectric conversion Expected total efficiency of TPHC (our system) ismuch higher than that of TEC and comparable to that of ORC at the same temperature differences
  15. 15. Market estimate* • Almost 250 quadrillion BTUs of low temperature energy is considered waste worldwide – Industrial sites (chemical, paper, food, etc – 76,000 sites) – Commercial buildings including schools and high rise – 200,000 sites – Other sites such as wastewater treatment plants (16,000) • Geothermal recourses (only crustal heat) 7.5▪107 quad BTUs • Solar flux (reached the surface of the Earth ) about 10 5 TW Potential market of waste heat conversion devices in the US only is a US$26Bln opportunity or over US$75Bln worldwide.Adopted from
  16. 16. Current status of the Project• Proof of concept achieved by testing a lab bench prototype of the heat engine• Key performance parameters verified experimentally• 7 PCT applications pending, 2 US patents, 3 Utility models (Germany), 6 Russian patents• Validation pending in USA, Canada, China, Korea, Taiwan, India, UK, Germany, France, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden, Finland
  17. 17. Proof of concept: lab bench engine assembly hot heat exchangercold hotaccumulator accumulator
  18. 18. Strategy Round Round 1 2 Waste Waste Pilot heat Waste Testing different scales and conditions heat Licensing industrial heatLab bench proto Whole system proto industrial industrial Applications We are here Yet more patents Waste Waste Pilot More patents heat Waste heat commerci heat Licensing commerci al estate commer- al estate cial estate Pilot Solar Licensing Pilot Geotherm Licensing
  19. 19. Project Team Leonid Sheshin Sergey Ryadnov Yurii Yavushkin Dr. Igor - Project - Chief System - System Rozhdestvenskiy - Manager, 12 Designer, 25 Tester, 40 years Business years of years of of experience in development experience in experience in mechanical consultant, 20 years experimental mechanical engineering of experience inphysics, 30 years engineering, 12 theoretical physics, 6+ – in electronic years - in fluid years experience in engineering, 7 power tech startup consulting years - in fluid power