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Unitat 15 geopolítica del món actual

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Unitat 15 geopolítica del món actual

  1. 1. H.M.C. 15. Geopolítica del món actual
  2. 2. H.M.C. <ul><ul><li>El nou ordre internacional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Els sistemes polítics democràtics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictadures i drets humans </li></ul></ul>Sumari
  3. 3. H.M.C. 1. El nou ordre internacional <ul><li>El lideratge dels Estats Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>El gran gendarme mundial; gran poder militar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guerra del golf de 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atemptat terrorista del 11/S del 2001 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. H.M.C. 1. El nou ordre internacional <ul><li>El fonamentalisme islàmic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moviments de resistència a la uniformització i aculturalització </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base: Alcorà, tradició, gihad (guerra santa), xara (llei musulmana),... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reislamització de la societat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nous moviments terroristes </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. H.M.C. 1. El nou ordre internacional <ul><li>Un nou tipus de violència internacional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atemptat de 2001 a Nova York: Al-Qaida, Ossama Bin Laden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nova orientació en la política exterior (intrusió i guerra preventiva; actuació militar) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. H.M.C. 1. El nou ordre internacional <ul><li>Les guerres contra el terrorisme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La intervenció a Afganistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Després del 11S els EUA ataquen Afganistan, governat pel règim islamista dels talibans (Oct 2001) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segons els EUA, a l’Afganistan s’hi entrenaven terroristes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pretenien també arrestar a Bin Laden </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La ONU dona suport als EUA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cau el règim talibà i el govern de l’oposició es compromet a democratitzar l’estat i a desmantellar totes les bases de les organitzacions terroristes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. H.M.C. 1. El nou ordre internacional
  8. 8. H.M.C. 1. El nou ordre internacional <ul><li>Les guerres contra el terrorisme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La guerra d’Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bush es planteja la invasió d’Iraq perquè sembla que disposava d’armes de destrucció massiva i col·laborava amb el terrorisme islàmic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L’objectiu era enderrocar el règim de Sadam Husayn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al 2003 s’inicia l’invasió i ràpidament cau el règim de Sadam. Es pretenia iniciar un període de transició cap a la democratització. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encara dura el control extern d’aquest procés, farcit de terrorisme i desconfiança envers els estrangers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. H.M.C. 1. El nou ordre internacional
  10. 10. H.M.C. <ul><ul><li>El nou ordre internacional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Els sistemes polítics democràtics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictadures i drets humans </li></ul></ul>Sumari
  11. 11. H.M.C. 2. Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni <ul><li>El conflicte balcànic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La desintegració de Iugoslàvia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A l’antiga Iugoslàvia van esclatar els conflictes nacionalistes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incloïa 6 repúbliques balcàniques: Sèrbia, Croacia, Eslovènia, Bòsnia i Hercegovina, Macedònia i Montenegro) amb llengües, religions i cultures diferents. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amb la caiguda del comunisme, la Federació Iugoslava no va funcionar per la negativa sèrbia a que el representant croata presidís la federació. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. H.M.C. 2. Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni <ul><li>El conflicte balcànic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La desintegració de Iugoslàvia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A partir d’aquí totes aquestes repúbliques es proclamen sobiranes i reclamen la seva independència. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La qüestió es complicava perquè dins de cada república hi ha havia minories ètniques i culturals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sota les ordres de Milosevic (serbi) es va intentar una neteja ètnica a Bòsnia. Finalment intervenen els cascos blaus de l’ONU. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. H.M.C. 2. Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni <ul><li>El conflicte balcànic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La desintegració de Iugoslàvia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al 1999 Milosevic intenta fer el mateix a Kosovo, però les tropes de la OTAN el derroten. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Milosevic es detingut i posat a disposició del Tribunal de Justícia Internacional de l’Haia per a jutjar-lo per genocidi. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kosovo al 2008 proclama la seva independència, però no es reconegut per tots els estats, entre ells Espanya. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. H.M.C. 2. Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni
  15. 15. H.M.C. 2. Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni <ul><li>Els enfrontaments al Caucas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Les fronteres quan es va desintegrar la URSS es van fer sense contemplar les nacionalitats a la zona del Caucas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>És una zona molt rica en petroli i gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armènia, Azerbaidjan, Geòrgia, Txetxènia, ... en són els territoris afectats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rússia ha intervingut en diferents conflictes per evitar la secessió. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L’altre front de tensió és el problema kurd. Estan repartits en 4 estats. Reclamen la creació de l’estat del Kurdistan. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. H.M.C. 2. Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni
  17. 17. H.M.C. 2. Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni <ul><li>Els conflictes a l’Àfrica subsahariana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A finals del segle XX Africa sembla abandonada a la seva sort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La pobresa i la SIDA són extremes en algunes zones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflictes ètnics sovint amb dictadors involucrats a Libèria, Sierra Leone, Camerun, Nigèria, Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Costa d’Ivori, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Conflictes invisibles” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sovint no es respecten els drets humans: violacions sistemàtiques, nens soldats, ... </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. H.M.C. 2. Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni
  19. 19. H.M.C. <ul><ul><li>El nou ordre internacional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Els sistemes polítics democràtics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictadures i drets humans </li></ul></ul>Sumari
  20. 20. H.M.C. 3. Els sistemes polítics democràtics <ul><li>Constitucionalisme i parlamentarisme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Els règims democràtics dels estats més rics es fonamenten en: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respecte i salvaguarda dels drets humans (ONU 1948) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sobirania popular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parlamentarisme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L’autoritat suprema de l’estat l’exerceis un monarca o un president electe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divisió de poders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Els estats poden ser: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unitaris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. H.M.C. 3. Els sistemes polítics democràtics <ul><li>El pluralisme polític: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Els partits polítics representen les voluntats de l’electorat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Són el mecanisme d’exercici de la democràcia indirecta. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretenen convertir les aspiracions populars en decisions polítiques. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hi ha sistemes multipartidistes i bipartidistes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominen els partits conservadors, socialistes, democratacristians, comunistes, ... </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. H.M.C. 3. Els sistemes polítics democràtics <ul><li>Els diferents sistemes d’escrutini: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>El model de districte personal: Utilitzats al Regne Unit i EUA. L’escó a diputat l’obté en cada circumscripció el representant més votat. Afavoreix el bipartidisme. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>El model proporcional: És el més utilitzat. És el nostre. Cada circumscripció envia diputats en funció dels resultats de cada partit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>El model polític republicà: Hi ha eleccions específiques per escollir el president (França, EUA, ...) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. H.M.C. 3. Els sistemes polítics democràtics <ul><li>Problemes de les democràcies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Augment de l’abstencionisme electoral. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desprestigi dels partits polítics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost de les campanyes electorals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protagonisme dels mitjans de comunicació </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradiccion entre l’igualitarisme democràtic i el sistema capitalista </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalització i democràcia? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. H.M.C. <ul><ul><li>El nou ordre internacional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflictes i guerres en el canvi de mil.leni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Els sistemes polítics democràtics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictadures i drets humans </li></ul></ul>Sumari
  25. 25. H.M.C. 4. Dictadures i drets humans <ul><li>Els règims autoritaris </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>És un sistema polític en el que no existeixen institucions representatives que hagin estat elegides pel poble ni tampoc una constitució que garanteixi els drets dels ciutadans i ciutadanes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>El poder s’hi imposa per mitjà de la força, no hi ha separació de poders reals ni independència del poder judicial. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La violació de drets humans sol ser una pràctica habitual en aquests estats (detencions arbitràries, tortures, execucions, genocidis, ...) </li></ul></ul></ul>

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