Equality and Diversity   EDI Level 2 Qualification           Workbook
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookBridgwater College is fully committed to promoting, maintaining and supp...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook    WHAT IS EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY?     Equality means: treating people...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookEQUALITY AND DIVERSITY POLICYBridgwater College‟s Equality and Diversity...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookIt highlights the responsibilities of individuals within the organisatio...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookInstitutional discriminationThis occurs when the way in which an organis...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookN.B. Please remember that most equality and diversity laws refer to dire...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookAnd if so,       Was the treatment “less favourable” on racial grounds?...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookA racist incident is any incident, which is perceived to be racist by th...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook     You must let it all out. Talk to someone about what happened; get ...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookIndirect Sex / Marriage DiscriminationThis can be defined as follows:Pla...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook     A job requires the employee to live and work in the same private h...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookWe undertake equality monitoring and analysis on the protected character...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookWhat does the Act make unlawful?The Act makes it unlawful for a service ...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookEqually DifferentWe are all different but we all deserve to be treated f...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookFor a disabled person to be discriminated against in this way, he or she...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookMyth: There are disabled people who are uneducable.Truth: Disabled peopl...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookIt is fact that sometimes the manager has to give difficult feedback and...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookSexual harassment is unacceptable behaviour of asexual nature, which is ...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbooknon-visible differences that exist between people.Diversity is about rec...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbookbeen powerful, she adds.Diverse religion and belief?There are many diver...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookBuddhismThere are around 150,000 active Buddhists in the UK (2001Census)...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookHinduismHinduism originated over 3000 years ago. Hinduism claims to have...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookIslamIslam began in Arabia and was revealed to humanity by the Prophet M...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook                                 SEXUAL ORIENTATIONOver the last twenty ...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook                                  GLOSSARY OF TERMSThe following are fai...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookGenuine occupational qualification Selection on racial grounds is allowe...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookTransgender The precise definition for transgender remains in flux, but ...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookEQUALITY & DIVERSITYPOLICY (Appendix A)Applicable to staff, students, cu...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookEQUALITY & DIVERSITY POLICY       SECTION                               ...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookEQUALITY & DIVERSITY POLICY1.    INTRODUCTION1.1   The Equality & Divers...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook          indirectly in the recruitment or employment of staff or in pro...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook         with another individual who has a protected characteristic.    ...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook4.10   A range of working and focus groups are used at Bridgwater Colleg...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook          other people and uphold the high standards expected of equalit...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook8.1.2 We undertake equality monitoring on the protected characteristics ...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook       effect.9.     EQUALITY IN TEACHING AND LEARNING9.1    We recognis...
Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook    the Vice Principal in accordance with legislative requirements and g...
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Ed level 2 work book

  1. 1. Equality and Diversity EDI Level 2 Qualification Workbook
  2. 2. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookBridgwater College is fully committed to promoting, maintaining and supportingequality and diversity as a key to our focus on staff and student experience in theCollege environment. The College aims to create an environment where allindividuals have the opportunity to achieve their full potential, and gain a feeling ofself-esteem and respect for and from all others. The College acknowledges thatEquality and Diversity is fundamental to excellent customer care and is opposed toall forms of inequality and discrimination. Everyone should expect to be treatedequally according to need, with dignity and respect and without being subjected todiscrimination or harassment.Bridgwater College works positively and progressively to ensure that no policy,practice, procedure or action puts any group of people at an unfair advantage orsupports discrimination.Bridgwater College will not tolerate any acts of unlawful discrimination by any usersof the College and will take appropriate action, as laid down in its policies andprocedures, if it is made aware that an unlawful act, or possible unlawful act, hasbeen committed.Promoting equality of opportunity is important at Bridgwater College and integratedinto all activities undertaken within the College, from Strategic and OperationalPlanning, development, delivery and assessment of curriculum, and recruitment andemployment of staff. We also ensure equality of opportunity is an integral part ofnew ventures, such as design and build of new facilities and engagement ofcontractors. 2
  3. 3. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook WHAT IS EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY? Equality means: treating people with fairness and ensuring everyone has equal opportunity to apply for jobs, training or access to goods and services. Diversity means: welcoming, embracing and encouraging the differences between individuals and groups. It simply means: a strong commitment to ideals such as justice, fairness, inclusion, respect, dignity and difference. It means: that everyone has certain legal rights regardless of their: o Race, Ethnic or National origin o Ability / Disability o Sex or Gender o Sexuality, (Sexual orientation) o Age o Religion, culture or belief It means: treating people on the same basis whether they are: o Married or not o Disabled or not o Male or female o Heterosexual, Homosexual, Bi-sexual or Transsexual o Younger or older It means: ensuring everyone has equal chance during recruitment and promotions in the workplace. Doing everything possible and reasonable to reduce any obstacle or barrier that may discourage or disadvantage particular groups of people from access to goods, public services, transport or educational opportunities. It means: doing everything possible and reasonable to reduce any obstacle or barrier that may discourage or disadvantage particular groups of people from access to jobs, training, accessing services and or promotion at work. It means: creating environments that encourage everyone to feel that they can apply for jobs/promotions or access to goods and services, without feeling they will be the odd one out, or have to work harder to achieve everyday things in life. 3
  4. 4. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookEQUALITY AND DIVERSITY POLICYBridgwater College‟s Equality and Diversity Policy will be invaluable to your learning andunderstanding of the issues raised.See Appendix A. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Policy.Every business or organisation should: Treat people fairly, giving everyone with the appropriate skills the same chance to compete for jobs and promotion or training opportunities. At Bridgwater College, all recruitment opportunities and all training opportunities are open to all employees Similarly training should be available to enable people to gain the skills required to complete their jobs effectively and to enable continuous personal and professional development. At Bridgwater College, all training opportunities are open to all employees Make it easier for people to apply for jobs and promotion. At Bridgwater College, all employees are encouraged to apply for promotion Everyone with the appropriate skills and qualifications for a position should feel encouraged to apply and that they stand a fair chance at interview. At Bridgwater College, all employees are treated with fairness at interview Encourage a diversity of the population to apply for jobs, and then select the appropriately skilled and qualified person from the pool of applicants. At Bridgwater College all internal post are advertised to all employees. All other posts are advertised to all staff, to local and national papers Having a clear „equal opportunities or equality and diversity policy‟ allows potential employees to know in advance what commitment is made by the business or organisation to become an inclusive equal opportunities employer and some policies detail how this will be achieved within the company. At Bridgwater College we have an Equality and Diversity Policy, which is up dated annually or as requiredIn other words, a sound equality and diversity policy can be a good advert for a companyand demonstrate the company‟s inclusive and diversity philosophies to employees, potentialemployees and customers. Having and implementing an equality and diversity policy can mean attracting a wider group of potential applicants for positions and as such, stand a better chance of attracting the right person for the job. At Bridgwater College we work positively and progressively to meet our Equality and Diversity Policy A good equality and diversity policy can help an organisation ensure that they employ a balance of both sexes, a wide range of people from diverse cultures, religions and other social groups. This can have direct benefits to clients and customers of the business and benefit the organisation in tackling business problems. At Bridgwater College we have a wide range of diversity within our organisationA good equality and diversity policy will detail a commitment to equality, list relevantequalities legislation, the organisation‟s aims and goals and how these will be implementedand measured. See Appendix A. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Policy. 4
  5. 5. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookIt highlights the responsibilities of individuals within the organisation and how to reportdiscriminatory incidents and bring grievances or complaints to management. See AppendixA. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity PolicyOperating a sound equal opportunities or equality and diversity policy makesgood sense to businesses for economic, social inclusion and moral reasons aswell as ensuring compliance with the law.DISCRIMINATION AND THE LAW  Every year many cases are still reported of companies and individuals appearing before an industrial tribunal for not complying with the requirements of equalities legislation, (the law). Some are fined large sums of money and in some instances there are other penalties to pay for discrimination and non-compliance  A tribunal panel listens to and considers the evidence presented by both sides. A decision is made as to whether or not discrimination has occurred or not. When the panel rules that discrimination has occurred, it will decide the penalties to impose and any action that should be taken  A key aspect of equal opportunities awareness is in part, about preventing discrimination in the first place  Discrimination is often described as the „less favourable treatment’ of people from minority or marginalised groups in society such as, black and racial communities, gay men, lesbians and transsexuals, people with disabilities, religious groups or women to name a fewThere are several different types of discrimination. In the sections that follow we will lookat discrimination and how all equalities legislation make reference to the main types ofdiscrimination:Direct discriminationThis means directly treating a person or group of people „less favourably‟ than others whoare in the same or similar circumstances, because of their race, gender, age or some othercharacteristic. See Appendix A. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Policy.Indirect discriminationThis happens when a set of conditions or requirement is applied equally to all people, butwhich has the effect of being „less favourable treatment‟ of certain individuals or groups,because they in the following pages. See Appendix A. Bridgwater College Equality andDiversity Policy.Individual discriminationThis happens when an individual acts on a pre-judged (prejudiced) belief against andindividual or group of people and the result of this action is „less favourable treatment(discrimination). An example might be, a college not accepting a Somali woman onto aliteracy course because the judgment was that English is not her first language. AtBridgwater College we ensure we make decision based on assessment of need and not onprejudice. 5
  6. 6. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookInstitutional discriminationThis occurs when the way in which an organisation‟s policies and practices lead to the „lessfavourable treatment‟ of an individual or group. For example if a college did not providelearning support and reasonable adjustments for students with learning difficulties and ordisabilities, this would favour students who do not have a learning difficulty or disability.See Appendix A. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Policy.Bridgwater College Equality & Diversity policy is Equality Impact Assessed. See AppendixA. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Policy.The Laws covering Equality and Diversity are:Disability and the Equality Act 2010 From 1 October 2010, the Equality Act bringstogether nine separate pieces of legislation into one single Act simplifying the law andstrengthening it in important ways to help tackle discrimination and inequality.However for the Equality and Diversity EDI Level 2 exam you will need to beaware of the following acts: -  Civil Partnership Act 2004  Disability Discrimination Act 1995  Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003  Data Protection Act 1998  Disability (Meaning of Disability) Regulations 1996  Disability (Blind & Partially Sighted Persons) Regulations 2003  Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003  Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003  Employment Rights Act 1996  Employment Relations Act 1999 & 2004  Equal Pay Act 1970  Equal Pay Act 1970 (Amendment) regulations 2003  Equality Act 2006  Human Rights Act 1998  Maternity & Parental Leave etc regulations 1999  Part Time Workers Regulations 2000  Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998  Protection from Harassment Act 1997  Race Relations Act 1976  Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000  Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974  Sex Discrimination act 1975  Sex Discrimination (Gender Reassignment) Regulations 1999  Sex Discrimination (Indirect Discrimination & Burden of Proof) Regulation 2001  Sex Discrimination act 1975 (Amendment) Regulations 2003  Special Educational Needs & Disability Act (SENDA) 2001This list is the key legislation governing equality and diversity and not intended to beexhaustive or comprehensive.As a way of becoming familiar with how equality legislation works, we will concentrate onthe Race Relations Act, The Sex Discrimination Act and The Disability Discrimination Act. 6
  7. 7. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookN.B. Please remember that most equality and diversity laws refer to direct and indirectdiscrimination.Race Relations Act 1976The 1976 Race Relations Act clearly stipulates that it is unlawful to discriminate againstsomeone on the grounds of race, skin colour, nationality and national or ethnic origin. TheAct covers and defines two types of racial discrimination - direct and indirect discrimination.Direct Racial DiscriminationThis means directly treating a person or group of people „less favourably‟ than others whoare in the same or similar circumstances, because of their race, or as it is sometimesreferred to „on racial grounds‟.Indirect Racial DiscriminationThis means the indirect and sometimes unintentional „less favourable‟ treatment of aperson or group of people, on racial grounds. Perhaps like, when a set of conditions areapplied to everybody, but are more difficult for certain racial groups to achieve or findacceptable.3.2 Direct Racial DiscriminationYou may think that examples of direct racial discrimination are few and far between thesedays; however there is sufficient evidence to suggest that some organisations stillintentionally discriminate against people from black and minority racial groups. An organisation is owned by people of a particular race and therefore only employs people from that same race An employer or placement owner/manager who says: “There is no point in sending anyone who is black or Asian to us; it‟s not me you understand, but the people on the shop floor are racist and there is always trouble”, or that “the customers don‟t like it”. An employer or placement owner/manager, stating that they don‟t want any hairdressing trainees who are of Afro-Caribbean origin, because the salon does not have any Afro-Caribbean clients A recruitment agency fails to send people of Black or other racial minority origin to a particular company for interview, knowing that company has discriminated on the grounds of race before. The recruitment consultant may try to justify this practice by stating that they are trying to save the applicants feelings or stop them being too disappointed A company allows white staff to progress to better job opportunities and promotions than it does its‟ black staff; in other words treating the people of Black and racial minority origin “less favourably”, this might be racial segregation, if certain jobs are only performed or given to people from certain racesOf course it is important to note that all of the examples above are illegal andthat not all cases of racial discrimination are so easy to identify.To clarify whether a company, policy or treatment of an individual is direct racialdiscrimination, we can ask ourselves: Was the treatment “less favourable” than that which was given to another individual of a different race? Was the treatment „different‟ from the treatment that would have been given to an individual of another race? 7
  8. 8. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookAnd if so, Was the treatment “less favourable” on racial grounds?Indirect Racial DiscriminationThis can be defined as follows:Placing or enforcing certain conditions or requirementsaround a promotion, opportunity, job vacancy or commercial public service, which although applied equally to people of all racial groups andcommunities is such that: By comparison, the proportion of a particular racial group, which can meet the requirements or conditions, is smaller. Thus, the effect on one racial group is “less favourable” even though applied equally to everyone A person or group of people from a racial minority who cannot meet those particular conditions or requirements are disadvantaged. e.g. that person is held back from gaining employment or training The conditions or requirements discriminate in terms of race only. In other words; they are wholly based on race and cannot be justified on any other groundsAn example of indirect discrimination in the workplace would be, if an employer stipulatedwithin their dress or uniform code that men had to be clean-shaven and that women mustwear skirts.Consider………… Muslim women, culturally are obliged to keep their legs covered and Sikh men in accordance with their religious beliefs do not shave their beards How could the people in the examples above comply with the conditions and requirements of the dress/uniform code and still have respect for maintaining the principles of their culture or religion?You can find and research examples of direct and indirect racial discrimination fromresources found in libraries and on the Internet; try the following web sites:Equality and human rights commission: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com(The new commission is working to eliminate discrimination, reduce inequality, and protecthuman rights and to build good relations, ensuring that everyone has a fair chance toparticipate in society.)The Home Office: http://www.homeoffice.gov.ukDefining Racist IncidentsThe importance of ensuring that all racist incidents are reported and recorded is anaccepted principle in combating racial discrimination. The Macpherson Report1 recommendsthat: a new definition of a racist incident should be universally adopted by the police, localgovernment and other relevant agencies:1The Macpherson Report excerpts included here are taken from The Stationery Office website:http://www.official-documents.gov.uk 8
  9. 9. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookA racist incident is any incident, which is perceived to be racist by the victim, orany other person.The report explains that:This means that if anyone – the victim, a witness, a police officer or a council official –perceives an incident as racist, it should be recorded as such, regardless of any dissentingviews. The new definition has the merit of being simple and clear and should help toreduce the scope for failure to record racist incidents and to ensure that most incidents areproperly investigated.3.5 VictimisationIt is often the case that people are afraid or reluctant to make a racial discriminationcomplaint, in case the employer makes conditions very difficult for the individual or makesunreasonable or unfair demands upon them. This kind of conduct by the employer in thesecircumstances is called victimisation and is against the law.If an employee has made a complaint about the company to the Equality and HumanRights Commission, the employer may attempt to make work difficult, discipline or dismissthe individual for doing so. The Race Relations Act (as do many of the equality anddiversity laws) defines this kind of action against employees as victimisation; itself a formof unfair discrimination and unlawful.The above is also the case for any employee or individual who is witness to or providesinformation for a complaint against an organisation.3.6 ExceptionsRacial discrimination (NOT VICTIMISATION) by an employer is not unlawful if: The job offered to existing or potential employees is within a private household. When being of a particular race is a genuine occupational qualification, for a job.Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000This Act strengthens and extends the scope of the 1976 Race Relations Act - it does notreplace it. The new Act strengthens the 1976 Act in two major ways:1. it extends protection against racial discrimination by public authorities;2. it places a new, enforceable positive duty on public authorities.Frequently Asked QuestionsWhat should I do if I feel I am being racially harassed or discriminated against? Tell the person that you believe their behaviour is racist or discriminatory and that you want it to stop. You may want a friend or colleague with you, when you do this. It may well stop after you say something. Make sure that your complaint is formalised, recorded and investigated properly. See Appendix A. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Policy.What if I‟m too embarrassed or scared to say anything to them? 9
  10. 10. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook You must let it all out. Talk to someone about what happened; get help and let the offender know that you are unhappy and offended. You can even get someone else to talk to them for you. Usually once a complaint is made and the person knows their behaviour is racist and illegal, it will stop.What if it doesn‟t? Tell your line manager or supervisor, or someone who is in a position of responsibility or authority. If it is your boss who‟s racially harassing or discriminating against you, then speak to another manager or someone more senior. If none of these options are available to you make sure you tell your training provider, the Equality and Human Rights Commission or the police. See Appendix A. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Policy. You may need to involve the police, depending on the circumstances. SEX DISCRIMINATION ACT 1975The 1975 Act, on sex discrimination makes it unlawful to discriminate about sex andmarriage within employment. People who feel they have been discriminated at work canmake a complaint to an industrial tribunal.The Act covers and defines sex and marriage discrimination in terms of direct and indirectsex discrimination. This Act also sets out to outlaw the victimisation of any person whoeither brings a complaint under the law or provides supporting evidence for someone elsewho may bring a complaint.Direct Sex DiscriminationThis occurs when someone is treated “less favourably” (or would be treated lessfavourably) than someone of the opposite sex and the discrimination is because of theirsex.Direct Marriage DiscriminationThis applies in the field of employment and is when a married person, regardless of theirsex, is treated “less favourably”, because of their marital status, than a person of the samesex who is not married. An employer or placement/manager asks a training provider to supply only male or only female trainees An employer who will only interview female applicants for a job, because the clients of that business may expect to see a woman in post, for example a Receptionist, or Kitchen or cleaning staff An employer or training provider trying to discourage young women from entering into traditionally male dominated industries like motor mechanics or engineering. An employer or training provider trying to discourage young men from entering into traditionally female dominated industries like Hairdressing, childcare and beauty therapy An employer refusing to employ married staff because the work involves long distance travel and staying away from home on a regular basis. An organisation that go out of their way to select single people, believing they will be more committed to their work and career 10
  11. 11. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookIndirect Sex / Marriage DiscriminationThis can be defined as follows:Placing or enforcing certain conditions or requirements on an individual applying foremployment or training (or performing a job or training), which although applied equally topeople, male or female, married or single, is such that: By comparison, the proportion of a particular sex or people of particular marital status, which can meet the requirements or conditions, are considerably smaller. Thus, the effect is “less favourable treatment” even though applied equally It clearly disadvantages the individual. i.e. the conditions or requirements prevent the person from getting the job or entering into the training or promotion. The conditions or requirements cannot be justifiedAn example of indirect sex discrimination in the workplace would be as follows: If an employer stipulated that a delivery job required heavy items to be lifted onto the transport and therefore women would not be considered for the job as they would not be strong enough. A test is set up for all applicants, male and female anyone who can lift 100kg will be considered suitable for the job:Consider………… Fewer women than men would be able to lift the weight It would disadvantage women because it will stop them getting the job Using the test would not really be justifiable because good health and safe (safe lifting) at work would mean that two or three people would lift delivery items onto the delivery van or use the hydraulic lift on the van to do thisYou can find and research examples of direct and indirect sex discrimination from resourcesfound in libraries and on the Internet; try the following web site:Equality and Human Rights Commission: http://www.equalityhumanrights.comVictimisationThis Act covers victimisation in much the same way as the Race Relations Act.ExceptionsSex discrimination (NOT VICTIMISATION) by an employer is not unlawful if:When being of a particular sex is a genuine occupational qualification, for a job. Within the acting or modelling profession where either a man or woman is needed because of physical form so as to be authentic or where a character role is that of a man or woman Where either a man or woman is required to ensure and preserve decency or privacy such as in toilets or changing/dressing rooms 11
  12. 12. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook A job requires the employee to live and work in the same private home as the employer who might reasonably object to a person of the opposite sex and the close proximity of personal and social life A job requires specialist care and or attention in a single sex establishment; such as a nursing home or a youth hostel. Employers who use these exceptions must be able to prove the stipulation of the Genuine Occupational Qualification being male or female applies to the job in question, to the Equality and Human Rights Commission. And these exceptions cannot be applied simply because it is thought that (physical strength or stamina) is a requirement of the jobAdvertisingUnfortunately people do still tend to stereotype jobs as men‟s or women‟s jobs. Other thanthe exceptions discussed above in 4.5, It is against the law to publish a discriminatoryadvertisement; in other words to specifically advertise for a man or a woman to fill avacancy.An advert, which speaks of a foreman or hostess, is discriminatory unless it specifies thatit is open to both men and women.Bridgwater College recruit our staff from a variety of labour markets including local,regional, national and international communities. We have a range of methods for doingthis including advertising in newspapers, noticeboards, specific journals, the internet andJobcentre plus.We undertake equality monitoring on the protected characteristics to allow us tounderstand who our candidates are and which candidates progress to interview and joboffer and to enable us to identify if there are any areas of concern within our recruitmentprocesses which prevent or discourage candidates from any particular protectedcharacteristic from applying or progressing through our recruitment process.We hold the Positive About Disabled People standard and have identified a disability officeras a first point of call for staff with disabilities. We liaise with the Access to Work Scheme,run by the Job Centre Plus service to identify, fund and seek specialist equipment for staffto ensure they can gain a job irrespective of if they have a disability or develop a disabilityduring their working life with us.The College has a separate Rehabilitation of Offenders‟ Policy to support ex-offenders tofulfil an active part in society and move on with their lives after previous difficult times. Wetalk to our existing staff or new staff about any convictions, cautions, reprimands orwarnings they have ever received as part of recruitment and induction processes.Bridgwater College welcomes student applications from all areas of the local, regional,national and international community. The Information, Advice and Guidance processenables students to select a course, suited to their level of ability and future aspirations,taking into account the relevant government funding stream, where appropriate.Many students join us from the local secondary schools, while others have a particularinterest in following a discrete area of provision and travel many miles to study with us(e.g. Land-based Studies). 12
  13. 13. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookWe undertake equality monitoring and analysis on the protected characteristics that wecollect from our students to allow us to understand who our students are and how theyhave progressed throughout their studies.We arrange appropriate learning support for our students who have learning difficulties anddisabilities and who need tailored additional support in order to succeed in their studies.We have been awarded the Highly Trusted Sponsor status, from UK Border Agency andtherefore we take student applications from international communities. We have stronglinks with several countries across the world and work with the British Council and UKBA toensure appropriate and relevant students join us in line with all relevant legislation.We work with our Student Union Equalities Officer to discuss how we can further supportstudents from different backgrounds or with differing needs to good effect.DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION ACT 1995Disability Is WidespreadThere are an estimated 8.5 million disabled people in Great Britain, nearly one in seven.This covers people with physical, sensory and mental impairments including cancer,diabetes and many more. The incidence of disability is strongly related to age: 11% ofpeople aged 16-24 have a long-term disability; this figure rises to 33% of those between50 and pensionable age.Disabled people face restricted opportunities, greater barriers to participation andcontinuing discrimination.The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) was passed in 1995 to introduce new measuresaimed at ending the discrimination which many disabled people face. It protects disabledpeople in the areas of: employment access to goods, facilities and services the management, buying or renting of land or propertySome of these measures became law for employers in December 1996. Others will beintroduced over time.For service providers (e.g. businesses and organisations): since December 1996 it hasbeen unlawful to treat disabled people less favourably than other people for areason related to their disability; since October 1999 service providers have beenrequired to make „reasonable adjustments’ for disabled people, such as providing extrahelp or making changes to the way they provide their services; since 2004 serviceproviders have had to make ‘reasonable adjustments’ to the physical features of theirpremises to overcome physical barriers to access.What does The Act say about providing services?Part III (of the DDA 1995) relates to the provision of services. It outlines what is madeunlawful by the Act and explains what is meant by "discrimination". It describes the scopeof services affected by the Act (and those which are excluded) and those people who haverights under the Act. 13
  14. 14. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookWhat does the Act make unlawful?The Act makes it unlawful for a service provider to discriminate against a disabled person: by refusing to provide (or deliberately not providing) any service which it provides (or is prepared to provide) to members of the public; or in the standard of service which it provides to the disabled person or the manner in which it provides it; or in the terms on which it provides a service to the disabled person.References to providing a service include providing goods or facilities.It is also unlawful for a service provider to discriminate in: failing to comply with any duty imposed on it by section 21 (a duty to make reasonable adjustments) in circumstances in which the effect of that failure is to make it impossible or unreasonably difficult for the disabled person to make use of any such service The reference to making use of a service includes using goods or facilitiesWhat does the Act mean by "discrimination"?The Act says that discrimination against a disabled person occurs in two possible ways. One way in which discrimination occurs is when a service provider: treats the disabled person less favourably - for a reason relating to the disabled persons disability - than it treats (or would treat) others to whom that reason does not (or would not) apply; and cannot show that the treatment is justified.The other way in which discrimination occurs is when a service provider: fails to comply with a duty imposed on it by section 21 of the Act (a duty to make “reasonable adjustments") in relation to the disabled person; and cannot show that the failure is justified.In addition, the DDA: requires schools, colleges and universities to provide information fordisabled people; allows the Government to set minimum standards to assist disabledpeople to use public transport easily.To see a copy of the full Disability Discrimination Act (1995), please visit:http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1995/ukpga_19950050_en_1Or visit the Equality and Human Rights Commission web site to find out more aboutequality and diversity matters, such as the Equally Different Campaign below:http://www.equalityhumanrights.com 14
  15. 15. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookEqually DifferentWe are all different but we all deserve to be treated fairly. Equally Different is a collectionof stories from people of all ages and social backgrounds explaining what makes themdifferent and how it has affected their lives. These stories were filmed over summer 2007.They also feature on the Commission‟s You Tube web site:http://uk.youtube.com/equalityhumanrightsVisit the following Internet web site:http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1995/ukpga_19950050_en_1The following is an excerpt from the DDA (1995) as detailed in the web sitepage above:Section 6.Duty of employer to make adjustments.6. (1) Where-(a) any arrangements made by or on behalf of an employer, or(b) any physical feature of premises occupied by the employer, place the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the employer to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the arrangements or feature having that effect.(2) Subsection (1) (a) applies only in relation to- (a) arrangements for determining to whom employment should be offered; (b) any term, condition or arrangements on which employment, promotion, a transfer, training or any other benefit is offered or afforded.Generally speaking what this means is that the Government by means of the DDA (1995) isplacing a real responsibility on employers and service providers to ensure that they havedone everything reasonable to ensure that both public service and employmentopportunities exist equitably for people living with a disability. The Act goes on to givespecific examples of what steps employers may have to take in order to comply with theLaw.Discrimination by employers4. Discrimination against applicants and employees.5. Meaning of "discrimination".6. Duty of employer to make adjustments.7. Exemption for small businesses.When is less favourable treatment unlawful discrimination?(Information taken from Disability Discrimination Act1995; Code of Practice; Rights ofAccess; Goods, Facilities, Services and Premises). 15
  16. 16. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookFor a disabled person to be discriminated against in this way, he or she must have beentreated less favourably by a service provider in comparison with how the service providertreats (or would treat) other people.The reason for the less favourable treatment must relate to the disabled person‟s disability.The „disability-related treatment‟ of the disabled person is compared with how the serviceprovider treats (or would treat) other people to whom the „disability-related reason‟ doesnot apply.EXAMPLEA football club admits visiting supporters to its stadium. However one visitingsupporter is refused entry because he has cerebral palsy and has difficultycontrolling and coordinating his movements. No other visiting supporter isrefused entry. This would amount to ‘less favourable’ treatment for a reasonrelated to disability and, unless the football club can justify its actions, would bean unlawful refusal of service, which is contrary to the act.Bad treatment is not necessarily the same as less favourable treatment although, where aservice provider acts unfairly or inflexibly, a court might draw inferences that discriminationhas occurred.Myths and Misconceptions about DisabilityMyth: Disability is a devastating personal tragedyTruth: The lives of disabled people are not tragic. What will often disable people are theattitudes they encounter and the environment in which they live and work.Myth: Most deaf people can lip read.Truth: For clear and efficient communication many deaf people will need services such assign language interpreters, lip readers, lip speakers and speech to text software.Myth: Most disabled people are unable to have relationshipsTruth: Many disabled people, like non-disabled people, make choices about marriage,long-term relationships and having children.Myth: Disability and illness are interrelated.Truth: Disabled people can get the same illnesses as other people.Myth: Disabled people are dependent on others.Truth: Disabled people sometimes need help with some things - too often this is becauseof an inadequately designed environment. Nonetheless disabled people strive to beindependent.Myth: Blind people have a sixth sense.Truth: Some people use and refine their own senses to compensate.Myth: Disabled people are courageous.Truth: Disabled people, like non-disabled people, cope with life in their own individualway.Myth: Wheelchair users are not mobile.Truth: Wheelchair users do get out and about. Some use wheelchairs generally, othersonly when necessary. 16
  17. 17. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookMyth: There are disabled people who are uneducable.Truth: Disabled people reflect the same range of academic ability as non-disabled people,with some achieving high qualifications and undertaking high-level jobs.Bridgwater College has been awarded the Positive about Disability Two Tick symbol. Theaccreditation is awarded to employers who demonstrate to the Department of Work andPensions (Job Centre Plus) that they have achieved, and are committed to, continuallyachieving 5 commitments relating to the employment of disabled people.The 5 commitments are to:• Interview all disabled applicants who meet the minimum criteria for the job• Ensure a mechanism is in place to discuss, at any time, but at least once a year, with disabled employees what can be done to ensure that they can develop and use their full abilities• Make every effort to ensure that when employees become disabled, they stay in employment• Take action to ensure that all employees develop the appropriate level of disability awareness needed to make these commitments work• Conduct an annual review on what has been achieved and plan ways to improve on them. This is reported to the Department of Work and PensionsThe award of the accreditation is reviewed annually when the employer has todemonstrate to Job Centre Plus what action it has taken to meet the 5 commitments - thisis an ongoing commitment.It is one of the ways we demonstrate our commitment to creating an environment, whichencourages disabled people to seek and maintain employment with us. HARASSMENTHow do we know when someone’s behaviour is acceptable or not?See Appendix A. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Policy.What should we do when we feel threatened or intimidated by the way someoneis behaving towards us? Consider the following scenarios; would you know whatto do?1. You are busy concentrating on your work, when a colleague puts his or her arm aroundyour shoulder. Is this acceptable behaviour? Is this harassment or just being friendly? Whatare your feelings?If you don‟t like someone‟s arm around you, tell them so. Usually a simple request not todo it will clarify your feelings and end the matter. When a person ignores what you havesaid and continues to do what you have asked them not to, this is harassment.2. Your supervisor, trainer or manager begins talking to you about your performance in athreatening and vindictive manner, telling you „what they will do‟ if you don‟t do what theyask. Is this bullying or performance management? 17
  18. 18. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookIt is fact that sometimes the manager has to give difficult feedback and explain the actionwe need to take, even when we don‟t like it. However, threatening, vindictive andaggressive behaviour is unacceptable from anyone. If necessary feedback is presented inthis threatening way, it may amount to bullying.3. You are European and your work colleagues make jokes about you, your accent andyour country. Is this just a joke or is this a form of racism?It is not acceptable. Most people would see this as offensive, so if it offends you, tell themso. This does not have to be confrontational. Making jokes about someone‟s origin is aform of racial harassment and unlawful. If the jokes and the behaviour continue you shouldseek support and report this to your management immediately.4. People who complain about being bullied or picked on because they are black, tall, short,English or are International, pregnant, gay, straight, Transsexual, male, female, Moslem,Jewish, too old, too young, complain about being sexually harassed, treated unfairly, or notgiven a fair chance………..are they just being overly sensitive? Do you think they shouldlighten up and be more able to take a joke?If anyone felt upset, embarrassed or offended by someone‟s behaviour and he or she hastold the person so, but the behaviour continues – then this is harassment. If the personwho has been told their behaviour is offensive or unacceptable, states that it was justjoking or fun; didn‟t mean it or believes you are being over-sensitive, that‟s not the point.Harassment becomes harassment when your reasonable request to stop hasbeen ignored.5. A young male trainee is chatting with a couple of female trainees about their plans forthe weekend. The young women ask the lad if he has a girlfriend. When he replies that heis single they start to tease him about being gay and start laughing at him saying „you are,aren‟t you, you‟re gay”. He states that he is not and becomes quiet, but the two friendscontinue. Is this just having fun or is this harassment? Any form of harassment is totally unacceptable. Whether it is malicious gossip, physical orverbal abuse, damaging your property or anonymous or offensive mail. Nobody shouldwork in a place where harassment is tolerated. It is totally unreasonable and deeplyoffensive to the vast majority of us. It is vitally important to us all that we feel able tospeak out safely, in the knowledge that every allegation will be taken seriously, examinedthoroughly, fairly and quickly.Harassment and Victimisation are attempts to intimidate and frighten people. Itis often proved to be illegal; it is always reprehensible and may lead todisciplinary action against the person doing it. The consequences may lead todismissal.Sexual HarassmentSee Appendix A. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Policy. 18
  19. 19. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookSexual harassment is unacceptable behaviour of asexual nature, which is unreasonable, unwelcome,unsolicited and offensive.Examples include: Unwelcome sexual attraction Ridicule or verbal insults of a sexual nature Sexually suggestive behaviour and innuendo (hints or sly remarks) or language Offensive gossip, whether based on fact or not Suggestions that sexual favours may further your career or refusal may hinder progression or promotion Sexually suggestive material displayed or circulatedWhat should I do if I feel I am being sexually harassed? Tell the person who is harassing you that their behaviour is unwelcome and that you want it to stop. You may want a friend or colleague with you, when you do this. It may well stop after you say something. If not make a formal complaint using the grievance procedureWhat if I‟m too embarrassed or scared to say anything to them? You must let it all out. Talk to someone about what happened; get help and let the offender know that you are unhappy. You can even get someone else to talk to them for you. Usually once a person knows their behaviour is unwelcome, it will stop.What if it doesn‟t? Tell your manager or supervisor, they have a legal responsibility to act on such matters. If it is your manager or supervisor who‟s harassing you, then speak to another manager or someone more senior. If none of these options are available to you make sure you, tell someone outside the organisation who can help you.Remember any unwanted sexual attention becomes harassment after you makeit clear that you find it unacceptable.One incident alone may constitute sexual harassment, if serious enough. Anyonecan be sexually harassed. DIVERSITYIn this section we will examine diversity with a broader view of the elements it compassesand what these represent in our daily lives. Working through this section will help you forma strong sense of what diversity is and why demonstrating your understanding of diversityis important.Diversity is about valuing and embracing the differences in people, whether that relates togender, race, disability, age or a host of other individual characteristics which may or maynot be covered by legislation. Diversity can be said to describe the range of visible and 19
  20. 20. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbooknon-visible differences that exist between people.Diversity is about recognising, accepting and valuing difference rather than being afraid ofit.Diversity acknowledges that there are clear differences between people such as gender,ability, national and ethnic origins, age, sexual orientation, culture, religion and belief – butbelieves that none of these should act as a barrier to a full and equal enjoyment of life.DIVERSE COMMUNITY?How can we make a good contribution?One of the most important ways in which we can contribute is recognising the importanceof respecting people and their differences, whatever the difference may be.If we put effort into the way we communicate with people we can make a real difference.Think about how strong a message you can convey by saying absolutely nothing yetconvey your meaning with a stare or particular body stance (body language).Verbal and non-verbal language can mean very different things in different cultures. Forexample maintaining eye contact when in conversation can in some cultures convey goodmanners and confidence whilst in others this demonstrates aggression and disrespect. So,when we are talking to people from other cultures it is useful not to assume that peoplewill understand our non-verbal communication (body language).Demonstrating knowledge and understanding of diversity is very important in a businesscontext also, we can conduct very successful professional relationships and deals bydeveloping our cultural awareness or we can conversely cause embarrassment or evenworse, offence when we are unaware.Culture has different meanings in different contexts but in general it refers to the traditions,behaviours and activities of a group or society of human beings.There have been some very effective advertising campaigns on television by the HSBCBank, which use this exact principle about the importance of understanding differentcultures and how important this can be for successful business.The advert depicts a European banker having dinner with Chinese business colleagues inHong Kong. The European banker whose culture has always enforced that good tablemanners is to eat everything given to him, is becoming stressed by the fact that every timehe empties his plate, his Chinese colleagues become concerned and bring him more food.This is because they do not understand his culture and his desire to be polite and eateverything, and conversely, in their culture it is polite to leave a little food on your plate toindicate that you have eaten sufficient.Talking about attracting diverse people into their organisation.The Independent, 26 May 2005, Kate HilpernAt HSBC, advertising has made a major difference in attracting people from widerbackgrounds. "Our television advertising, which focuses on difference, has been incrediblysuccessful in attracting a diverse set of recruits, as well as customers," says Sue Jex, Headof Employee Relations & Diversity. The banks zero tolerance to discrimination has also 20
  21. 21. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbookbeen powerful, she adds.Diverse religion and belief?There are many diverse religions and belief systems in our society in the UK.This provides an introduction or refresher to the major religions practiced in the UK. Youmay want to research further using the World Wide Web over the internet. This linkhttp://www.bbc.co.uk is a good place to start.On the BBC home page type the word „Religion‟ in the search engine. This is usually in thetop right of the screen. You will be given a list of links within the website to explore. Youwill also find that good relevant information about Equality & Diversity is available fromyour local Learning and Skills Council. 21
  22. 22. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookBuddhismThere are around 150,000 active Buddhists in the UK (2001Census). Buddhism is a traditionthat focuses on personal spiritual development. Buddhists strive for a deep insight into thetrue nature of life and do not worship gods or deities. There are as many forms of Buddhistworship as there are schools of Buddhism. Buddhism was founded in India in the 6thcentury BC by Siddharta Gautama, who is generally known as Buddha or „enlightened one‟.Its philosophy is based on a system of ethics rather than a set of rules. Buddhism sees lifeas a process of birth, ageing, illness and death, in which people achieve enlightenment(Nirvana) by understanding suffering and overcoming grief. Buddhists believe in rebirthand that the life you lead now has a direct effect on the next life. The notion of „treatingothers as you would like to be treated yourself‟ is a way of life with Buddhists.ChristianityChristianity is the worlds biggest religion, with about 2.1 billion followers worldwide and 6million active Christians in the UK (2001 Census). It is based on the teachings of JesusChrist who lived in the Holy Land (Canaan, modern day Israel) 2,000 years ago. Includedare any groups of Christians that sincerely regards itself as Christian, and whose beliefs arebased on the teaching of Jesus. Christians believe that Jesus Christ the son of God, whocame to earth as a man to restore the relationship between humans and God that hadgone wrong. There are many different forms or „denominations‟ of Christians, which includeOrthodox, Roman Catholic and Protestant. The main beliefs of Christianity include the beliefin the Holy Spirit, forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body and everlasting life. Themain celebrations of this religion include Christmas, when the birth of Jesus Christ iscelebrated and Easter, when it is believed that Jesus Christ was resurrected following hiscrucifixion.RastafarianismRastafari is a young, Africa-centred religion based on principles rather than beliefs, whichdeveloped in Jamaica in the 1930s, following the coronation of Haile Selassie I as King ofEthiopia in 1930. The religion has links with Judaism and early Christianity. Obedience tothe ten commandments is important and both the Bible and Ethiopian history are closelystudied. The Nazarite vow on separation is closely followed and prohibits the cutting ofhair; it also emphasises the celebration of life rather than death, and therefore attendanceat funerals is not of great importance.Rastafarians believe that Haile Selassie is God; called Ras Tafaro, he died in 1975. Similarlythey believe he will return members of the black community who are living in exile as theresult of colonisation and the slave trade, to Africa. Since the majority of Jamaicans arethe descendants of enslaved Africans its unsurprising that a number of reggae lyrics dealwith the historical and social upheaval of slavery. One of the few major faces of minorityreligious sects, Robert Nesta Marley, has become the face of reggae and of Rastafari. Hisown brand of African rock and reggae music reached out to people all over the world, andhad great impact on the religious movement as a whole. Bob Marley was born in 1945 to awhite middle class father and a black mother, in Jamaica. He left home at 14 years old topursue a music career in Kingston. This was his first experience of Rastafari, becoming apupil of local singer and devout Rastafarian, Joe Higgs.Rastafarians are very particular about food and prefer to eat as naturally as possibleincluding fruit and vegetables. Most do not eat pork as it is considered unclean, somerefuse alcohol, some are strict vegetarians, whilst others additionally eat fish. 22
  23. 23. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookHinduismHinduism originated over 3000 years ago. Hinduism claims to have many founders,teachers and prophets who claim first-hand experience of God. When Hindus promote theidea of spirituality as a principle rather than a personality, they call this Brahman. Hindusbelieve that all living things have a soul and that the soul passes through a cycle ofsuccessive lives and its next incarnation is always dependent on how the previous life waslived. There are about 560,000 Hindus in the UK (2001 Census) and it is estimated that160,000 are actively involved in their faith. Hindus believe that there is a creator or asupreme spirit that is neither male nor female and who is far too complex for ordinaryhumans to understand. For this reason the creator is worshiped through three images:Brahma, the creator, Vishnu, the preserver and Shiva, the destroyer.The religion teaches its followers a way of life and is mainly practised by Indians and is thedominant religion in India. This religion has no single founder or prophet, no single holybook or organised place of worship. Therefore worship takes place mainly in the home butalso in the temple (Mandir). Hindus usually pray at least twice a day. The Janamashtamifestival marks the birth of Krishna, the most highly venerated God in the Hindu pantheon.The two most import festivals are Holi and Diwali. Both men and women generally wearwestern dress. Traditional clothing for women includes the Sari and Shalwar (loose fittingtrousers) and Kameez (loose fitting trouser suit). Men traditionally would cover themselvesfrom waist to knee and would wear a Kameez or Kurta (a long tunic) on special occasions.Married women wear a red spot on the forehead (Bindi) or a red streak in their hair. Eatingmeat is forbidden in Hindu religious philosophy, especially beef because the cow is a sacredanimal. Most Hindus will not eat egg fish or food that contains egg; diet has a strongreligious aspect. Alcohol and tobacco are taboos (forbidden) for many Hindus.JudaismJudaism is one of the oldest monotheistic religions and was founded over 3500 years ago inthe Middle East and is considered to be the forebear of Christianity and Islam.There are over 276,000 Jews living in the UK (2001 Census), 85,000 of whom are activelyinvolved in the faith. The fundamental belief of Judaism is that there is one all- powerfulgod who created the universe and that God has a special relationship with the Jewishpeople, forged by the covenant that God made with Moses on Mount Sinai, 3,550 yearsago. Jews believe that God appointed the Jews to be his chosen people in order to set anexample of holiness and ethical behaviour to the world. Shavuot marks the time that theJews received the Torah on Mount Sinai. It also marks the start of the wheat harvest andthe end of the barley harvest. The synagogue is the Jewish place of worship, where prayersare said three times a day, but is also used as a place to study, and often as a communitycentre as well. Saturday or Shabbat (Sabbath) is a religious festival which starts at sunseton Friday and lasts until sunset on Saturday. This weekly festival represents God‟s creationof the world and therefore devout (devoted to the religion) Jews do not engage in any„creative‟ work (driving, public transport, phoning, cooking or writing) on that day.Jews are divided according to their beliefs and practices and according to their racialorigins, as either having roots in Europe (Ashkenazi Jews) or Spain and the Middle East(Sephardi Jews). The main divisions of belief and practice include: Orthodox Jews, HarediJews, Conservative or (Masorti) Jews, Hasidic Jews, Reform Jews and Reconstructionist andHumanistic Judaism. The lighting of 8 candles on eight successive nights and thepreparation of traditional potato cakes celebrate the festival of lights called „Hanukkah‟. 23
  24. 24. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookIslamIslam began in Arabia and was revealed to humanity by the Prophet Muhammad (peace beupon him). Muhammad (pbuh) was not a god; he was a man through whom God revealedhis will. Those who follow Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe that there is only oneGod. The Arabic word for God is Allah. The holy book that Muslims follow as a way of life iscalled the Qur‟an. There are about 1.6 million Muslims in the UK (2001 Census) and about600,000 are active in the faith. Those who are not actively involved in the faith considerbeing a Muslim an important part of their identity. Like Christianity there are differentdenominations of Islam. The two main sects in the Muslim faith are the Sunni and theShiites who split because of a leadership dispute decades after the death of their prophet in632 AD.Today although there are differences, both sects agree on the fundamentals of Islam „The5 Pillars‟ which include, faith in the religion, worship and 5 daily prayers, fasting in themonth of Ramadan and pilgrimage and charity to the holy city of Mecca at least once in alifetime. There are two main celebrations in Islam: Eid ul Adha and Eil ul Fitr. Malcolm X,or Malik El Shabbaz as he later named himself, is probably one of the most well-knownpersonalities of the twentieth and twenty first centuries. For oppressed people all over theworld he was a role model of eloquence and activity. Through his involvement in the Nationof Islam and then Orthodox Islam, he became a staunch supporter of civil rights by anymeans necessary.SikhismSikhism was founded in the Punjab by Guru Nanak in the 15th Century CE and is amonotheistic (belief in one God) religion. Sikhs believe that there is a single all-powerfulGod, who created the universe and everything in it. The Sikh holy book is called „GuruGranth Sahib‟. There are 18-20 million Sikhs in the world and 80% of them live in thePunjab state in Northwest India where the faith began. There are 336,000 Sikhs in Britain(2001 Census), 80% of whom actively follow their faith. 39% of UK Sikhs attend worshiponce a week at a place called a Gurdwara (meaning house or residence of God). This isalso a community centre and has a free kitchen (Langar) where anyone can eat.Most of Britains Sikhs have their origins in immigration either from the Punjab in NorthwestIndia in the 1950s and 60s, or from East Africa slightly later. „Gurpurbs‟ are festivals thatare associated with the lives of the Gurus. The word „Sikh‟ is Punjabi for „disciple‟ and Sikhsare disciples of the Gurus. Sikhs think religion should be practiced by living in the world andcoping with lifes everyday problems; living one‟s life according to the scriptures andteachings of the Sikh Gurus and doing things to benefit other people. This involves earningan honest living, having a humble attitude and sharing happiness and wealth with others inthe family. Sikhism emphasises social and gender equality, and stresses the importance ofbehaving unselfishly. A Sikh is not allowed to cut hair from any part of the body. It isforbidden to cut body hair or even trim eyebrows and beards.The main celebrations include Diwali, the festival of lights and Baisakhi, the day when Sikhscelebrate the formation of Sikh brotherhood. Many Sikhs are vegetarian and will need toknow the contents of food dishes where this is not obvious. For religious reasons beef andtobacco are forbidden and alcohol is not permitted in orthodox (traditional and customary)families. It is forbidden to cut hair (Kesh), which must be kept clean and protected. Leavinghair un-cut and beards untrimmed is an indication of living in harmony with the will of God.Men usually tie their hair up in a knot on the top of the head and cover it with a turban,which is a religious symbol also. 24
  25. 25. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook SEXUAL ORIENTATIONOver the last twenty years attitudes towards people‟s sexuality have changed a great deal.Despite this increase in acceptance of gay lifestyles, research reveals that a significantminority of people in Britain are opposed to homosexuality. 83% of young gay people have received verbal abuse (Gallup 2002) 6% of the UK population is Gay or lesbian (DTI 2005) An estimated 20% of gay men, lesbians and bisexuals are believed to conceal their sexual identity in the workplace (Stonewall survey 2003) Some people know their sexual orientation from a very early age, others realise it much later in lifeDiscrimination, stigma and hatredDiscrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation in employment is now illegal. Stonewall,a long-standing lesbian and gay pressure group has taken a large number of test cases ofdiscrimination to the European Union arguing for the right not to be discriminated againstin employment. Finally a new employment framework directive was issued by the EuropeanUnion, which required the UK government to introduce legislation to make it unlawful foremployers to discriminate on the grounds of sexual orientation. This law came into force onthe 1st December 2003.It is not uncommon for lesbians, gay men or bisexuals to become the target of homophobiccrime or harassment and bullying. Stonewall is involved in awareness raising andeducational campaigns that address this serious diversity issue. You can research some ofthe educational work that Stonewall supports at this web link:http://www.stonewall.org.uk/education_for_allHomophobic bullying causes permanent damage to young people and blights the schoolsand colleges where it takes place. Making all young people - regardless of their sexuality -feel included and valued is a major opportunity for the educational system to transform thelives of a significant number of pupils and students.As you will remember from your work or training induction, bullying of any form is a veryserious matter and will be investigated and reported fully and quickly. This would be agood point to refer to the Equality & Diversity Policy in your staff handbook (kept in yourworkplace) or (ask your tutor for a college copy). Read what it says about bullying andhow bullying is dealt with at college or in your workplace. It is important that youunderstand this and know how to act if you or a fellow student or work-colleague needssupport.Research and review an online Case Study.Using the Stonewall website link: http://www.stonewall.org.uk/education_for_all 25
  26. 26. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook GLOSSARY OF TERMSThe following are fairly basic definitions and are intended simply to inform and raiseawareness.Ageism Discrimination against young or old people (in fact, people of any age). Basedupon the belief that they are incapable or unable to take care of themselves, or lacknecessary experience, skills and/or the ability to learn new skills.Bullying can be described as persistent actions, criticism or personal abuse, either inpublic or private, which humiliates, denigrates, undermines, intimidates or injures therecipient.Bi-sexual Physical and or emotional attraction to men and women.Black is a term usually referring to a racial group of humans with a dark skin color, but theterm has also been used to categorise a number of diverse populations into one commongroup. Black is a term also used to describe specific life experiences and cultural aspects oflife.Classism Represents a particular form of oppression where the rules, values, norms andideals of one socioeconomic group or class are imposed upon another within a hierarchy ofclass values, e.g. working class people are often discriminated against by so-called middleclass and upper-class people who might label them ignorant, stupid, uneducated andineffectual.Closet (or in the closet) A term used when a person keeps their sexual orientation hiddenor un- disclosed. i.e. Lesbians, bi-sexuals or gay men who keep their sexuality hidden fromothers for fear of harassment, stigma and oppression.Come out (or out) A process, which involves being open and honest about onessexuality. More specifically, lesbians, bi-sexuals, Trans people and gay men who havepreviously kept their sexuality or identity hidden and then make a decision to come out ordeclare their sexuality or identity openly. Outing someone means openly informing othersabout an individuals sexuality or identity, without their permission to do so.Disabilism (or abilism) A concept that distinguishes a certain proportion of society (thosewho have a physical disability, a mental illness, or emotional, behavioural or learningdifficulty) from the so-called able-bodied majority.Discrimination results from prejudice and often only arises when these prejudices areactually applied or acted upon and involves treating people less favourably on the groundsof gender, marital status, sexual orientation, skin colour, race, nationality or ethnic ornational origins etc. There are two types of discrimination - direct and indirect.Feminism Is a belief in the right of women to have political, social, and economic equalitywith men.Gay The term adopted by the Gay Liberation Movement of the 1960s in an attempt toaffirm a truly joyous and alternative lifestyle and to replace the term homosexual.Homosexual men use „Gay‟ predominantly. 26
  27. 27. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookGenuine occupational qualification Selection on racial grounds is allowed in certainjobs where being of a particular racial group is a genuine occupational qualification for thatjob. An example is where the holder of a particular job provides people of a particular raceor cultural group with personal care services promoting their welfare, and where a personof that race or cultural group can most effectively provide those services, or where being ofa particular race or culture provides authenticity to the service/s provided by thatbusiness/organization, i.e. Being Indian to work as a waiter in an Indian restaurant.(Genuine occupational qualification is also a concept, which may apply to sex (gender)where being of a particular sex or gender is considered to be an appropriate and validcriteria for selection).Harassment is unwanted conduct which may create the effect of (intentionally orunintentionally) of violating a person‟s dignity or creating an intimidating, hostile,degrading, humiliating or offensive environment which interferes with an individual‟slearning, working or social environment or induces stress, anxiety, fear or sickness on thepart of the harassed person.Heterosexism The assumption that heterosexuality is normal or natural. It implies thatanyone living a different lifestyle must be „abnormal‟ or „un-natural‟ sometimes pervertedand/or in need of help.Heterosexual Physical and or emotional attraction to the opposite sex.Homophobia An aspect of heterosexism, a fear of same-sex relationships, a fear of lovingthe same sex. A generalised dislike or hatred of gay men, Lesbians and Bi-sexuals and theirlifestyle; usually interpreted as discriminatory vies and beliefs against gay men and women.Homosexual Attraction physically and or emotionally to the same sex; usually but notexclusively applied to gay men.Lesbian A woman who is physically and or emotionally attracted to women.Multi-cultural Term used to describe a mixture of cultures but not necessarily orexclusively races.Oppression The process of treating people with cruelty, denial of choice and opportunityor injustice often signified by some sort of discrimination.Prejudice A judgment or opinion (view point or belief) based on a personal belief thatpeople of, for example, other genders, cultures, races and beliefs are inferior to ones own.This is usually based on generalisation or stereotyping. Racism Negative discrimination, prejudice and oppression based on skin colour or racialorigin, for example the oppression of black people by white people i.e. prejudice + power =oppression.Sexism Behaviour, policy, language or other actions (often by men) which express theview that women are, in some way, less than or inferior.Stereotyping Making assumptions or generalisations about certain individuals who sharesimilar characteristics and applying that assumption as true of all groups of people insociety who share that characteristic; usually through lack of awareness, ignorance or fear. 27
  28. 28. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookTransgender The precise definition for transgender remains in flux, but includes: People who were assigned a sex, usually at birth and based on their genitals, but who feel that this is a false or incomplete description of themselves Non-identification with, or non-presentation as, the sex (and assumed gender) one was assigned at birthVictimisation is punishing or treating an individual unfairly because they have made acomplaint, or are believed to have made a complaint, or who has or believed to havesupported someone who has made a complaint/grievance or reported a discriminatoryincident. 28
  29. 29. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookEQUALITY & DIVERSITYPOLICY (Appendix A)Applicable to staff, students, customers and the general public usingBridgwater College from 1 December 2010 29
  30. 30. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookEQUALITY & DIVERSITY POLICY SECTION PAGE 1. INTRODUCTION 3 2. PURPOSE 3 3. SCOPE 3 4. EQUALITY & DIVERSITY AT BRIDGWATER COLLEGE 3 5. ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES 5 6. EQUALITY STATEMENTS 7 7. INDUCTION & STAFF DEVELOPMENT 7 8. RECRUITMENT 7 8.1 RECRUITMENT OF STAFF 7 8.2 RECRUITMENT OF STUDENTS 7 9. EQUALITY IN TEACHING & LEARNING 8 10. EQUALITY MONITORING & REPORTING 8 11. REVIEW OF POLICY 9 30
  31. 31. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity WorkbookEQUALITY & DIVERSITY POLICY1. INTRODUCTION1.1 The Equality & Diversity policy demonstrates the commitment of the College to equality of opportunity for staff, students and other people and sets out our equality principles.1.2 Equality of opportunity is an important aspect of College life because we want to create an environment in which everyone is able to achieve their full potential.1.3 We strive to ensure that the College environment is free of harassment and bullying and that everyone is treated with dignity and respect at all times. To support this, we have an anti-Bullying & Harassment Policy within our personnel policies and a separate student specific Anti-Bullying Policy.2. PURPOSE2.1 The College is fully committed to promoting, maintaining and supporting equality and diversity in all aspects of its work. The College aims to create an environment where all individuals have the opportunity to achieve their full potential, and gain a feeling of self-esteem and respect for and from all others. The College expresses its opposition to all forms of inequality and discrimination.2.2 The College has statutory duties under UK law to promote equality of opportunity between people of different groups. Full details of the statutory duties are available in the Single Equality Scheme.2.3 This policy assists the College to put its commitment into practice. Staff adherence to this policy should ensure that employees do not commit unlawful acts of discrimination or inequality.3. SCOPE3.1 This policy applies to staff, students, employers, customers and suppliers. It applies to anyone who uses the College at any point in time. Everyone should expect to be treated equally according to need, with dignity and respect and without being subjected to discrimination or harassment.3.2 The College has to make choices every day in all aspects of its working practices. The College will not base these decisions on prejudicial beliefs and therefore, will fully consider the reasons for making decisions. The College formally records the considerations it makes by completing Equality Impact Assessments.4. EQUALITY & DIVERSITY AT BRIDGWATER COLLEGE4.1 Bridgwater College acknowledges that it is unlawful to discriminate directly or 31
  32. 32. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook indirectly in the recruitment or employment of staff or in providing educational services for students, in terms of the 9 protected characteristics, as defined in the Equality Act 2010.4.2 Bridgwater College works positively and progressively to ensure that no policy, practice, procedure or action puts any group of people at an unfair advantage or supports discrimination.4.3 The 9 protected characteristics of equality are:  Age  Disability  Gender reassignment  Race  Religion or belief  Sex  Sexual orientation  Marriage and civil partnership  Pregnancy and maternity4.4 Bridgwater College will not tolerate any acts of unlawful discrimination by any users of the College and will take appropriate action, as laid down in its policies and procedures, if it is made aware that an unlawful act, or possible unlawful act, has been committed. The categories of discrimination as listed in the Equality Act 2010 are: i) Direct discrimination Where a person is treated less favourably than another because of a protected characteristic. In very limited circumstances, a genuine occupational requirement may be permitted. ii) Indirect discrimination Where a provision, criterion or practice is applied that is discriminatory in relation to individuals who have a relevant protected characteristic such that it would be to the detriment of people who share that protected characteristic compared with people who do not, and it cannot be shown to be a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim. iii) Harassment Where there is unwanted conduct, related to one of the protected characteristics that has the purpose or effect of violating a person‟s dignity; or creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment. Harassment may apply either directly or indirectly to customers, clients, staff or students because of one of the protected characteristics. iv) Associative discrimination Where an individual is directly discriminated against or harassed for association 32
  33. 33. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook with another individual who has a protected characteristic. v) Perceptive discrimination Where an individual is directly discriminated against or harassed based on a perception that he/she has a particular protected characteristic when he/she does not, in fact, have that protected characteristic. v) Third-party harassment Where an employee is harassed and the harassment is related to a protected characteristic by third parties such as clients or customers (please refer to the Harassment & Bullying Policy) vi) Victimisation Where an employee is subjected to a detriment, such as being denied a training opportunity or a promotion because he/she made or supported a complaint or raised a grievance under the Equality Act 2010, or because he or she is suspected of doing so. However, an employee is not protected from victimisation if he or she acted maliciously or made or supported an untrue complaint.4.4.1 The protected characteristics of marriage and civil partnership, and pregnancy and maternity are not currently covered in the areas of:  Harassment  Associative discrimination  Perceptive discrimination  Third party harassment4.5 College staff will not discriminate or harass a customer or member of the public in the provision of goods, facilities or services.4.6 We will make reasonable adjustments to overcome barriers to using services caused by disability. A reasonable adjustment may include the removal, adaption or alteration of physical features (as long as this is not unreasonably difficult).4.7 Anyone who feels they have experienced harassment or bullying by customers, suppliers, visitors, staff, students or others should notify their manager or if this is not possible, speak to SQS.4.8 Promoting equality of opportunity is important at Bridgwater College and integrated into all activities undertaken within the College, from Strategic and Operational Planning, development, delivery and assessment of curriculum, and recruitment and employment of staff. We also ensure equality of opportunity is an integral part of new ventures, such as design and build of new facilities and engagement of contractors.4.9 The College has a Single Equality Scheme which sets out the 9 equality protected characteristics and helps us to promote equality through various mechanisms and fulfil our statutory duties. 33
  34. 34. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook4.10 A range of working and focus groups are used at Bridgwater College to progress the equality and diversity agenda including:  Equality & Diversity Committee (Staff and Students)  Equality & Diversity Staff Development Theme Group (Staff only)  Disability Equality Duty Focus Group (Staff)  Disability Equality Duty Focus Group (Students)  Equality Characteristic Focus Groups (Staff only)5. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES5.1 As members of the College community we all have a responsibility to work towards equality of opportunity in all 9 equality protected characteristics by treating people equally and valuing the diversity of others.5.2 All staff have a responsibility to work co-operatively with others at all times. Individual members of staff can be held personally liable as well as, or instead of, the College for any act of unlawful discrimination. Staff who commit serious acts of harassment may be guilty of a criminal offence. Acts of discrimination, harassment, bullying or victimisation against others are disciplinary offences and will be dealt with under the College‟s disciplinary policy. Discrimination, harassment, bullying or harassment may constitute gross misconduct and could lead to dismissal without notice. Specific responsibilities for equality & diversity are set out for groups of staff:  Governors will lead by example, challenge what we do and how we do it with regards to equality & diversity with staff and students.  Senior managers will lead by example, demonstrate the principles of equality & diversity and seek good equality practice from managers and staff across the College and specifically within their Area  Managers will establish good working relationships with all staff within their teams and respond to any issues that arise in terms of staff or student concerns. Manager will manage staff in an equal, fair and appropriate way to ensure no form of favouritism, discrimination or unfair advantage is permitted.  Senior Tutors will ensure the Tutorial Programme seeks to raise student awareness of Equality & Diversity issues and good practice in this area.  Teaching and training staff will demonstrate the principles of equality & diversity and how we are fair and supportive to all people, irrespective of who they are. Teaching and training staff will deliver materials to students which avoid stereotyping or discrimination and embed equality & diversity into their lessons.  Staff will work harmoniously with all other staff, students, customers and 34
  35. 35. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook other people and uphold the high standards expected of equality & diversity. Staff will report any concerns about equality issues so that management can take action to rectify and provide a supportive environment for staff, students and other people.5.3 It is a specific responsibility of the College Equality & Diversity Committee, made up of staff from all areas of the college, student representative from the Student Union and chaired by the Vice Principal, to ensure that the Equality & Diversity Committee Action Plan is revised annually and all actions monitored towards implementation during the College year.5.4 This Action Plan aims to broaden awareness of issues and ensure good practice in everything we do. The Vice Principal reports on progress against the Action Plan to the College Governors.5.5 A College Equal Opportunities Co-ordinator is appointed from the Equality & Diversity Committee to support the Vice Principal in implementing and monitoring the Equality & Diversity Committee Action Plan.6. EQUALITY STATEMENTS6.1 Bridgwater College will promote equality of opportunity to all staff and students in accordance with current legislation such as the Equality Act 2010, and will continue to review and amend this policy and our practices as required under legislation and case law.6.2 Bridgwater College believes in equality of opportunity in all its activities including the delivery of education and training, projects, employment and recruitment.6.3 Wherever practicable the College will accommodate cultural and religious needs of students and staff within the constraints of operational requirements.7. INDUCTION & STAFF DEVELOPMENT7.1 Bridgwater College will provide a range of CPD (continuing professional development) activities to staff and managers both at induction and during employment to ensure equality and diversity is central to their understanding of workplace activities and people management.8, RECRUITMENT8.1 RECRUITMENT OF STAFF8.1.1 We recruit our staff from a variety of labour markets including local, regional, national and international communities. We have a range of methods for doing this including advertising in newspapers, noticeboards, specific journals, the internet and job centre plus. 35
  36. 36. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook8.1.2 We undertake equality monitoring on the protected characteristics to allow us to understand who our candidates are and which candidates progress to interview and job offer and to enable us to identify if there are any areas of concern within our recruitment processes which prevent or discourage candidates from any particular protected characteristic from applying or progressing through our recruitment process.8.1.3 We hold the Positive About Disabled People standard and have identified a disability officer as a first point of call for staff with disabilities. We liaise with the Access to Work Scheme, run by the Job Centre Plus service to identify, fund and seek specialist equipment for staff to ensure they can gain a job irrespective of if they have a disability or develop a disability during their working life with us.8.1.4 The College has a separate Rehabilitation of Offenders‟ Policy to support ex- offenders to fulfil an active part in society and move on with their lives after previous difficult times. We talk to our existing staff or new staff about any convictions, cautions, reprimands or warnings they have ever received as part of recruitment and induction processes.8.2 RECRUITMENT OF STUDENTS8.2.1 We welcome student applications from all areas of the local, regional, national and international community. The Information, Advice and Guidance process enables students to select a course, suited to their level of ability and future aspirations, taking into account the relevant government funding stream, where appropriate.8.2.2 Many students join us from the local secondary schools, while others have a particular interest in following a discrete area of provision and travel many miles to study with us (e.g. Land-based studies).8.2.3 We undertake equality monitoring and analysis on the protected characteristics that we collect from our students to allow us to understand who our students are and how they have progressed throughout their studies.8.2.4 We arrange appropriate learning support for our students who have learning difficulties and disabilities and who need tailored additional support in order to succeed in their studies.8.2.5 We have been awarded the Highly Trusted Sponsor status, from UK Border Agency and therefore we take student applications from international communities. We have strong links with several countries across the world and work with the British Council and UKBA to ensure appropriate and relevant students join us in line with all relevant legislation.8.2.6 We work with our Student Union Equalities Officer to discuss how we can further support students from different backgrounds or with differing needs to good 36
  37. 37. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook effect.9. EQUALITY IN TEACHING AND LEARNING9.1 We recognise that teaching, training and learning support staff have an important role to play in embedding equality & diversity into their lessons and tutorials. We run training sessions for staff on how to embed equality and diversity into lessons and materials and what behaviour on equality and diversity is appropriate in lessons.9.2 For instance, our teaching, training and learning support staff are encouraged to deal with issues as they arise in lessons and to tackle prejudice, stereotyping and negative behaviours about one or more minority groups (e.g. BME people, disabled people, immigrants, homosexual people and sexist jokes/issues).9.3 All staff are encouraged to undertake equality training during their employment and to undertake training for the achievement of the Level 2 Award in Equality & Diversity.9.4 All new staff, as part of their induction, complete an equality & diversity induction awareness booklet which introduces them to equality at Bridgwater College and our expectations of working harmoniously with other people.10. EQUALITY MONITORING & REPORTING10.1 The Equal Opportunities Co-ordinator prepares an annual Equality Report which provides information on:  Specific actions and projects undertaken during the college year  Action points (and progress against them) raised with or by the E&D Committee  Data monitoring in respect of staff and students across the protected characteristics of equality  An assessment of the equality impact of College policies  Specific actions recommended for the forthcoming academic year10.2 The report is made available to the College community via the extranet and is sent to the Governors. A summary of the key points are published as part of the College‟s Annual Report.10.3 As part of its development, this policy has been equality impact assessed.11. REVIEW OF POLICY11.1 The Equality & Diversity Policy is reviewed in line with legislative changes and case law and is also formally reviewed on an annual basis.11.2 The process used to formally review the policy will include:  Identification of amendments by Equal Opportunities Co-ordinator, SQS and 37
  38. 38. Bridgwater College Equality and Diversity Workbook the Vice Principal in accordance with legislative requirements and good practice Amendments presented to the Equality & Diversity Committee at an appropriate meeting Consultation will take place on the revised draft policy at the Equality & Diversity Committee Consultation will then take place on the revised draft policy by consultation with trade union representatives The draft policy will be passed to College SMT for consideration and comments The draft policy will be passed to the College Governors for ratification The final policy will then be published and communicated to all staff 38

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