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Visualization Methods Overview Presentation Cambridge University Eppler September 2006


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Lesson taught at Cambridge in the Engineering & Manufacturing tripod program.

Visualization Methods Overview Presentation Cambridge University Eppler September 2006

  1. 1. The Visualization SpectrumA Systematic Overview of Visualisation Methods for Managers<br />Martin J. Eppler<br />University of Lugano (USI)<br /> /<br /><br />Cambridge, IfM, September 28th 2006<br />
  2. 2. VisualizationMethodsforManagement:OurOverview<br />
  3. 3. Outline<br />The Realm of Visualization <br />Visualization Classifications<br />An Activity-based View<br />How to choose the right Method<br />Conclusion<br />:<br />
  4. 4. The ABC of Visualization<br />Size<br />Color/ Texture<br />.<br />.<br />Position<br />Animation<br />Orientation<br />Form<br />Source: adapted from J. Bertin<br />
  5. 5. Accuracy Ranking of Quantitative Perceptual Tasks<br />Position<br />More <br />Accurate<br />Length <br />Angle <br />Slope <br />Area <br />Less <br />Accurate<br />Volume<br />Color <br />Density<br />Source: Mackinlay 88 from Cleveland & McGill<br />
  6. 6. Emprical Results: Use of visualization in management <br />-> Quantitative charts dominate, what about conceptual visualization?<br />Source: Meier, 1994<br />
  7. 7. Overview of Quantitative Diagrams<br />Source:; Howard Wainer, 2001<br />
  8. 8. Diagram<br />Types<br />(static) <br />Structure<br />TimeSeries<br />Phases / Steps<br />Relationships<br />(dynamic) <br />Process<br />Clustering/<br />Positioning<br />cyclical<br />continuous<br />linear<br />linear<br />hierarchical<br />Network<br />Venn<br />Matrix<br />Coordinates<br />t<br />Timeline Process Cycle Spectrum Pyramid Network Venn Matrix Cartesian<br />Overview of NineSimple Qualitative Business Diagrams<br />
  9. 9. General Visualization Conventions<br /><ul><li>Time is shown from the left to right.
  10. 10. Important aspects are represented with larger shapes, stronger colors that indicate higher importance.
  11. 11. The pattern of grouping distinguishes between central and secondary information.
  12. 12. The arrangement corresponds to logical flow.
  13. 13. Proximity implies similarity, distance suggests differences
  14. 14. Identical shapes or colors designate identical types of objects (visualize different things differently)</li></ul>A<br />B<br />Source: adapted and expanded from Rhodes, 1991, p. 135.<br />
  15. 15. Outline<br />The Realm of Visualization <br />Visualization Classifications<br />An Activity-based View<br />How to choose the right Method<br />Conclusion<br />:<br />
  16. 16. Kosslyn’s Classification:Types of Symbolic Displays<br /><ul><li>Framework
  17. 17. sets the stage
  18. 18. kinds of measurements, scale, ...
  19. 19. Content
  20. 20. marks
  21. 21. point symbols, lines, areas, bars, …
  22. 22. Labels
  23. 23. title, axes, tic marks, ...</li></ul>Graphs<br />Charts<br />Maps<br />Diagrams<br />
  24. 24. An Empirical Taxonomy: Lohse et al. 1994<br />structure diagrams: description of physical object<br />cartograms: spatial maps showing quantitative data<br />maps: symbolic representation of physical geography<br />graphic tables<br />process diagrams<br />icons: e.g., logos<br />time charts: e.g., Gantt charts<br />network charts: flow chart, org chart, decision trees, pert tree<br />photo-realistic pictures<br />tables: single to multiple rows<br />graphs: quantitative information using position and magnitude of geometric objects. 1-3D, examples: cartesian or polar coordinate system: scatterplots, line bar, pie chart, Chernoff face graphs)<br />
  25. 25. Horn´s elements of Visual Language<br />
  26. 26. Other Taxonomies<br />Shneiderman (1996) proposes a task by data type taxonomy of information visualization with seven data types:<br />one-, two-, three-dimensional data, <br />temporal and multi-dimensional data, <br />tree and network data <br />and seven tasks (overview, zoom, filter, details-on-demand, relate, history, and extracts). <br />Card, et al., 1998) constructed a data-oriented taxonomy for information visualization techniques, which is based on Card and MacKinlay (1997): This taxonomy divides the field of visualization into several subcategories: <br />Scientific Visualization, <br />GIS, <br />Multi-dimensional Plots, <br />Multi-dimensional Tables, <br />Information Landscapes and Spaces, <br />Node and Link, <br />Trees,<br />Text Transforms <br />
  27. 27. Outline<br />The Realm of Visualization <br />Visualization Classifications<br />An Activity-based View<br />How to choose the right Method<br />Conclusion<br />:<br />
  28. 28. The KnowViz Framework (Eppler & Burkhard 2005)<br />
  29. 29. Examples of the seven Types<br />Envisioning: mental imagery, thinking aloud<br />Sketching: doodling, flip charting<br />Expressing: visual metaphor, cartoon <br />Diagramming: Gantt chart, Toulmin chart<br />Mapping: geographic map, knowledge map<br />Materializing: Lego serious play, Compad <br />Exploring: treemap, parallel coordinates<br />
  30. 30. 1. Examples of Envisioning<br />Verbal Metaphors: ‚Backwardparking‘<br />Analogies: Benzol ring invention<br />Parables: The Elephantandthe 4 blind man<br />Simulation: Mentallyvisualizing an activity.<br />
  31. 31. 2. Examples of Sketching<br />
  32. 32. 3. Examples of Expressing: Visual Metaphor<br />
  33. 33. 3. Examples of Expressing: Cartoons<br />
  34. 34. 4. Examples of Diagramming<br />
  35. 35. 5. Examples of Mapping<br />
  36. 36. 6. Examples of Materializing<br />
  37. 37. 7. Examples of Exploring<br />
  38. 38. Comparative Description of each Activity Type<br />+<br />-<br />
  39. 39. Outline<br />The Realm of Visualization <br />Visualization Classifications<br />An Activity-based View<br />How to choose the right Method<br />Conclusion<br />:<br />
  40. 40. When to use which quantitative chart type?<br />Line graph <br />x-axis requires quantitative variable<br />Variables have continuous values<br />familiar/conventional ordering among ordinals<br />Bar graph<br />comparison of relative point values<br />Scatter plot<br />convey overall impression of relationship between two variables<br />Pie Chart?<br />Emphasizing differences in proportion among a few numbers<br />
  41. 41. When to use which map?(Small, 1999)<br />
  42. 42. Selecting the right Visualization Activity<br />= i.e., Iceberg risk metaphor<br />= i.e., scenario sketching <br />= i.e., Gantt chart for project <br />
  43. 43. The visualization spectrum contains quantitative and qualitative visualization formats.<br />They can be used to depict structures or processes.<br />In order to choose the right method, think about its main purpose, the content type, the target audience and communication situation.<br />Conceive of visualization as an activity and choose among envisioning, sketching, ex-pressing, diagramming, mapping, materializing or exploring.<br />!<br />Conclusion<br />
  44. 44. Great Books on Visualization<br />
  45. 45. Further References<br /><ul><li>Bertin, J. (1974). The Semiologyof Graphics. Diagrams Networks, Maps.
  46. 46. Sachs-Hombach, K. (2005). Bildwissenschaft / Image Sciences.
  47. 47. Eppler, M. (2006) Managing Information Quality: Increasingthe Value of Information in knowledge-intensive Products andProcesses, 2nd ext. Edition.
  48. 48. Eppler, M. (2003) The Image of Insight: Using Visual MetaphorstoCommunicateKnowledge, in Journal of Universal Computer Science
  49. 49. Eppler, M. (2002) Making Knowledge Visible throughKnowledgeMaps, in: Holsapple (Ed.): Knowledge Management Handbook
  50. 50. M. Peterson (1995) Interactive and Animated Cartography
  51. 51. Eppler, M., Sukowski, O. (2000) Managing Team Knowledge, in: European Management Journal, June, Oxford.
  52. 52. Eppler, M. (2006) A comparison between concept maps, mind maps, conceptual diagrams and visual metaphors. In: Information Visualization, September Issue.
  53. 53. Eppler, M. (1999) Conceptual Management Tools, NetAcademy Press. Online at: &
  54. 54. Galloway, D. (1994) : Mapping Work Processes
  55. 55. Horn, R.E. (1998) Visual Language. Global Communication for the 21st Century
  56. 56. Horn, R. (1989): Mapping Hypertext
  57. 57. Huff, A.(1990) Mapping Strategic Thought
  58. 58. Huff, A. (2001) Mapping Strategic Knowledge
  59. 59. Probst, G., Deussen, A., Eppler, M., Raub, S. (2000): Kompetenz-Management
  60. 60. Wurman, R. Information Architects, 1996
  61. 61. Wurman, R. Information Anxiety2, 2001</li></ul>Visualization<br />Overview<br />Visual<br />Metaphors<br />Knowledge<br />Maps<br />Diagrams<br />