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Rational Use Of Energy

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This presentation discusses a generalized approach to handle industrial energy use data as compared to production data, in order to predict possible savings

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Rational Use Of Energy

  1. 1. RATIONAL ENERGY USE AND WASTE MINIMIZATION GOALS BASED ON THE USE OF PRODUCTION DATA ENRIQUE POSADA INDISA S.A. Medellín, Colombia www.indisa.com.co [email_address] R'07 World Congress Recovery of Materials and Energy for Resource Efficiency
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Bases for this study. </li></ul><ul><li>How energy and resources use are typically reported in Colombia. </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology for rational use of appropriate specific energy consumption indicators for targeting and monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization of this methodology based on results obtained in a study involving 21 industrial plants in Colombia. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bases for this study <ul><li>The author works for INDISA, an engineering consulting company. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006 the author visited over 30 companies in Colombia and acquired information on their energy and resources use. </li></ul><ul><li>This work was a part of energy audits sponsored by a utilities company to benefit its customers . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bases for this study <ul><li>Plenty and variety of data was collected. </li></ul><ul><li>It offered a unique opportunity for the generalization of ideas previously developed and tested by the author. </li></ul><ul><li>The potential for savings is large. </li></ul><ul><li>This potential offers a clear opportunity to help reduce global warming, at a very low cost. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How energy and resources use are typically reported in Colombia <ul><li>All visited companies gather enough information useful to establish meaningful resources use indicators. </li></ul><ul><li>All the companies use the data to calculate resources costs for their general processes. </li></ul><ul><li>A minority of the companies have the means to measure resources consumption for individual operations </li></ul>
  6. 6. How energy and resources use are typically reported in Colombia <ul><li>About 2/3 of the companies import the data to M.S. Excel sheets and calculate specific energy use indicators. </li></ul><ul><li>About 35 % of the companies plot the indicators vs. time. </li></ul><ul><li>These companies usually set goals associated with the indicators, based on fixed numbers, but without any clear attempts to correlate them with production levels or scientific/technological basis. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How energy and resources use are typically reported in Colombia <ul><li>The typical use the companies make of the data is to tabulate energy consumptions and costs vs. production for certain periods of time. </li></ul><ul><li>The data is usually plotted using bar graphs. </li></ul><ul><li>Only in few cases dispersion graphs are used. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How energy and resources use are typically reported in Colombia
  9. 9. How energy and resources use are typically reported in Colombia <ul><li>Only a couple of companies correlate energy data with production. </li></ul><ul><li>In no case the specific energy consumption indicators are used to establish rational energy use or energy saving goals. </li></ul><ul><li>The dispersion of the data was not deliberately studied or used for any purpose . </li></ul>
  10. 10. How energy and resources use are typically reported in Colombia Example with a plot of energy data correlated with production
  11. 11. Methodology for rational use of specific energy consumption indicators <ul><li>Calculation of specific consumptions, e.g. electricity in kWh/Ton produced and fuel consumption per ton produced. </li></ul><ul><li>They allow us to be objective and draw useful conclusions and establish goals for savings and rational energy use. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Methodology for rational use of specific energy consumption indicators Plot of the indicator vs. production rate.
  13. 13. Methodology for rational use of specific energy consumption indicators Specific consumption usually lowers as production rate increases. 7,26 % Extra cost at low production rates 6,13 % Savings at high production rates 3,61 3,16 3,37 US $/ton Cost of electricity 41,1 36,0 38,3 KWh/ton Specific consumption 1.422 1.825 1.680 tons Production At minimum production At maximum production At average production Condition
  14. 14. Methodology for rational use of specific energy consumption indicators <ul><li>Three data regions can be identified. </li></ul><ul><li>The first set is the near average data. An average data line can be drawn using averaging techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>The second set consists of the data with lower specific consumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>The third set corresponds to the data with higher specific consumptions. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Methodology for rational use of specific energy consumption indicators Three data regions
  16. 16. Methodology for rational use of specific energy consumption indicators <ul><li>The “Alarm line” indicates the extremes of inefficiency under current operating procedures. Paying attention to current ways of operation will lead to identification of inefficiency causes. </li></ul><ul><li>Even more useful, it is the line of lower consumptions, i.e. the “goal line”, which indicates the points of more efficient operation that are currently occurring. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Methodology for rational use of specific energy consumption indicators Analysis of data to establish goals 59.382 US $/year Possible yearly savings (300 days per year) 0,118 US $/ton Possible savings 0,088 US $/KWh Electricity cost 3,5 % Possible average savings 3,37 US $/ton Cost of electricity 38,34 KWh/ton Specific consumption at average production 1.680 tons Average production
  18. 18. Methodology for rational use of specific energy consumption indicators <ul><li>Try to operate at points of higher efficiencies, based on logistics, programming, sales and a good knowledge of the best operating points for the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Attain the energy consumption reductions set by the goal line, by internal auditing and paying attention to the operation. </li></ul><ul><li>There is usually no need of investment in additional equipment. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Methodology for rational use of specific energy consumption indicators <ul><li>Take into account that specific energy consumptions goals depend on production rates. </li></ul><ul><li>A table of production rate related goals should be prepared and used as a base for targeting and monitoring. Fixed goals will not give the real sense of what is happening. </li></ul><ul><li>Complement with historical monitoring of production rates, costs with the monitoring of the historical behavior of the indicator. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Methodology for rational use of specific energy consumption indicators <ul><li>Practical ways of attaining goals </li></ul><ul><li>Form a responsible team . </li></ul><ul><li>Train the team in techniques of continuous improvement, group work, analysis of opportunities and strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish appropriate specific indicators for the plant as a whole and also for specific equipment and processes, supported by adequate monitoring of associated production and energy variables. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Methodology for rational use of specific energy consumption indicators <ul><li>Practical ways of attaining goals </li></ul><ul><li>At least once a week, the behavior of the indicators should be analyzed. </li></ul><ul><li>Propose actions and bring them to practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather and stimulate ideas from the involved personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Let the results, targets and benefits be known by all parties. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Generalization of this methodology <ul><li>General view of the results obtained from energy consumption data from 21 companies in Colombia. </li></ul><ul><li>Information was converted into dimensionless numbers, so that different ways of measuring rates and specific consumptions could be compared. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Generalization of this methodology The dimensionless numbers are: Indicator of production rate = Rate / Average rate Indicator of specific consumption = Specific consumption / Average specific consumption.
  24. 24. Generalization of this methodology Examples with some of the 27 plots drawn with the dimensionless numbers
  25. 25. Generalization of this methodology General view of all the results obtained (electricity)
  26. 26. Generalization of this methodology General view of all the results obtained (natural gas)
  27. 27. Generalization of this methodology Potential savings (%) vs. production indicator for the studied sample
  28. 28. Generalization of this methodology Results of the correlations between indicators for the studied sample Electricity in 27 processes 0,52 0,96 0,007 Correlation factor R 2 of line 1,52 2,00 1,026 Intersection of line of correlation -0,520 -0,026 -0,998 Slope of linear correlation between indicators 129.165 898.357 2.335 Electric energy savings at average production, US $/year 8,62 26,40 1,58 Potential electric energy savings at average production, % 12,48 45,65 3,80 Standard deviation of specific consumption indicator, % 49,63 133,02 8,45 Range of specific consumption indicator, % 0,81 0,96 0,41 Lower value for the specific consumption indicator 1,31 1,93 1,05 Higher value for the specific consumption indicator 17,50 42,38 6,71 Standard deviation of production data, % 60,82 135,20 16,04 Range of production indicator, % 0,67 0,92 0,25 Lower value for the production indicator 1,28 1,66 1,02 Higher value for the production indicator Average Maximum Minimum Characteristic
  29. 29. Generalization of this methodology Results of the correlations between indicators for the studied sample Natural gas in 8 processes 0,60 0,90 0,16 Correlation factor R 2 2,08 2,94 1,50 Intersection of line of correlation -1,08 -0,50 -1,94 Slope of linear correlation between indicators 136.878 470.000 5.094 Natural gas savings at average production, US $/year 13,50 44,92 3,65 Potential natural gas savings at average production, % 20,86 53,05 8,80 Standard deviation of specific consumption indicator, % 69,83 154,81 29,54 Range of specific consumption indicator, % 0,72 0,90 0,28 Lower value for the specific consumption indicator 1,42 1,83 1,11 Higher value for the specific consumption indicator 15,45 42,38 6,98 Standard deviation of production data, % 48,90 117,31 16,04 Range of production indicator, % 0,73 0,92 0,34 Lower value for the production indicator 1,22 1,51 1,08 Higher value for the production indicator Average Maximum Minimum Characteristic
  30. 30. Generalization of this methodology Prediction of potential savings at average production
  31. 31. Conclusions <ul><li>The proposed methodology for data analysis offers a more rational approach to rational energy use, as consumption goals can be set in relation to production goals. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires a more comprehensive and technical analysis, but it will result in larger savings and a better knowledge of the process. </li></ul><ul><li>In principle, no investments need to be considered. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Conclusions <ul><li>This study, involving 21 well established companies in Colombia, found average potential savings of 8,6 % for electricity, and 13.5% for natural gas. </li></ul><ul><li>These savings could be attained with operative practices, contributing to the national programs on global warming and sustainable development. </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible to predict potential savings by converting data into dimensionless variables. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Conclusions <ul><li>This methodology can be extended to rationalization of other resources use, e.g. water, raw materials and to recycling and waste minimization programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Although many companies in Colombia apparently know the general principles behind this methodology, they do not use their data for the purposes stated on this presentation. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Thank you very much for your kind attention

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