Disclaimer:What I’m going to talk about today is not the detailed information you are likely hearing at other sessions. And believe me, I have been really impressed by the amount of technical knowledge about content strategy at this conference. That is the perk of getting to speak one day into the conference. You get to see how great everyone is, and also use things that have been said to boost your own presentation. This is not a presentation about specific tools or technologies per se. And it is not specific to technical content. This is a presentation about traditional publishing, and may even lean toward magazine publishing, since that is my world right now. It is about how the publishing world has been impacted by current technologies and the explosion of media we see around content. But I hope to contribute to the information we are sharing about techniques. I am certainly learning a lot from all of you, and I hope what I say today can be used in your organizations, with your management, your bosses, to make a case for why a content strategy is important.
Past: 20 years’ experience in publishing: college manuals, Princeton UP (academic books), Folger (academic journal and museum- and library-related publications:: magazine, catalogues)Current: Director of Publications, Society for Technical Communicationpublications managementfuture of publishingdigital, mobile, new media publishingEditor, Intercom magazineEditing/production standards and practicestechnical communication expertPhD student, Texas Techpublication management, new media, mobile technologies and design, and participatory culture, esp. in cultural heritage institutions (such as associations and museums)
Let’s take a look at STC’s current publications more closely because I will be referring to them throughout the presentation. And because, someone said early on at this conference, that you can’t fix the problem until you admit you have a problem. So I am throwing myself out there. Showing you what STC is up to, but also what I think it could be if a new, radical (for publishing anyway) perspective is applied.Intercom is a magazine that is available in several formats: print (pay), online website, mobile (?), PDF, and until earlier this year, FlipDoc. Intercom is published 10 times a year and has an editorial advisory panel.
TechComm is an academic journal currently available in all the same formats as Intercom. It is published 4 times a year and has an editor (Menno de Jong) and an editorial board.Mention open to public for review…
Email newsletter and blog (open to public & open for commenting)
Now that I’ve made my STC plug,jk, I want to take you back to the very beginning of publishing to show you how the speed of technological development has increased so quickly in our lives.If you look at the chart in the slide, you see that publishing content was a slow process, for the most part.
Cuniform: wedge-shaped characters on tablets out of clayVellum: animal skinsSame sized handheld reading device at -4000BC!
But let’s not kid ourselves. Tablets are NOT the only device we are using today. Expectations are to provide content when and where users want it, on the device or in the format of their choosing. Even in my own experience, just with STC…I am expected to produce a bunch of new outputs. When I started working at STC in 2008, the focus on pubs was print-based. Now I am expected to not only keep the current sites and improve upon them (providing new, creative ways to deliver content) but I am also expected to find new revenue streams and ways for content to be findable. In other words, I need to have a print version, including PDF, a website and a mobile version, and add potential new products and media: video and audio, social engagement, ebooks, apps…and on multiple devices to boot (let’s not be elitist or Apple-centric). Frankly, the more creative and daring I am, some call this innovation, the better the potential products, right!?Oh, and don’t be looking for the Bearded Gentleman from my slide to be in the next issue of Intercom… it’s a style guide, yes, but it’s a Style Guide for Shaving Face (about beards)… it was just a good find for
And just to show you how how much better we’ve gotten with our online presence, here’s the 2010 website and the 2011 website. Even if you cannot read this from where you are sitting, I hope you can see how much better it is.
So how does STC compare to the rest of the publishing world?I’m sure it will come as no surprise to all of you that print is no longer the most important copy. I have aDisintermediation is the removal of intermediaries in a supply chain: "cutting out the middleman". Instead of going through traditional distribution channels, which had some type of intermediate (such as a distributor, wholesaler, broker, or agent), companies may now deal with every customer directly, for example via the Internet
Here’s a great example of how print is no longer the most important copy. The TTU LIBRARY, where I am in school for my PhD and spent a year (drastic change).: “it’s less about those hardback books, and more about those digital objects” I find this troubling. To me, it’s not about the objects, but about the content they are providing. TTU has given students a way to access content for free in multiple ways, and they have provided them a place to collaborate and share ideas.How does a publisher take this phenomenon into account?
Pew Internet and American Life ProjectTo survive and publish in a new media landscape, we must embrace new media and all (or most) of its characteristics. But how does one do so?
So I’m curious, how many of you enjoy reading print vs. on a screen? Forgetting about the cost and effects on the environment or any other external factors for a moment, raise your hands if you still prefer print to a device with a screen.How many of you have bought an ebook or emag? Of those, how many have been disappointed by the experience? How many have bought an enhanced ebook (something interactive, with live links, video, audio)—more than just text?That’s _____________Here’s how the magazine industry feels…
How many of you have seen these ads in popular trade magazines…? You may know that several publishers started an ad campaign in March 2010 (Charles H. Townsend, Condé Nast; Cathie Black, Hearst Magazines; Jack Griffin, Meredith Corporation; Ann Moore, Time Inc.; and JannWenner, Wenner Media) to talk about the vitality of magazines as a publishing medium. This ad in particular makes the point that the Internet will not kill magazines, just like instant coffee did not kill coffee, TV didn’t kill film, radio didn’t kill the video star (!) , and ebooks won’t kill print books. This is still debatable, of course, but I think it’s been a compelling argument.
And to prove I think it’s compelling, I’m going to make a tweetable statement: that publishing isn’t dead, it’s just different, And related to that: print isn’t dead, it’s just one option of many.Publishers have to offer: No one single entry point but a mixture of offeringsMultiple user preferencesMulti-authorship, interactivity, and community-driven sitesDistribution-driven (not destination-driven)—meaning it’s more about how content is found and who is interested in it rather than starting with a container and trying to push it as a product
So given all of this background, I wanted to ask 2 main questions: How does digital and new media change the process of making publications, as well as what we do with them afterward? And What are the strategies publishers need to embrace in a new media landscape?First we need to clarify some definitions…
Electronic, digital or ePublishing is a format of publishing that includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. Although distribution via the Internet (also known as online publishing or web publishing when in the form of a website) is nowadays strongly associated with electronic publishing, there are many non network electronic publications such as Encyclopedias on CD and DVD, as well as technical and reference publications relied on by mobile users and others without reliable and high speed access to a network.There is statistical evidence that electronic publishing provides wider dissemination.A number of journals have, while retaining their peer review process, established electronic versions or even moved entirely to electronic publication.
To me, new media publishing is a different theory of publishing. New media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century, with a possibility and expectation of on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content. Another important promise of new media is the "democratization" of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. What distinguishes new media from traditional media is the digitizing of content into bits.Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia, is an example of new media, combining Internet accessible digital text, images and video with web-links, creative participation of contributors, interactive feedback of users and formation of a participant community of editors and donors for the benefit of non-community readers. Facebook is an example of the social media model, in which most users are also participants.
Most technologies described as "new media" are digital, but also have additionalcharacteristics of being manipulated, networkable, dense, compressible (a lot of information in one file), and interactive.Some examples are the Internet, websites, computer multimedia, computer games, CD-ROMS, and DVDs. New media does not include television programs, feature films, magazines, books, or paper-based publications - unless they contain technologies that enable digital interactivity.The definition of new media is always shifting, just like the definitions I’ve heard by other speakers for mobile, apps, content…
New media publishers are context providers—people who establish networks of information in a highly collaborative creative process, blurring boundaries between disciplines. Technological change has affected the function of publishing, the role of the publisher, and the way texts and content are shared, creating a need for flexible information filters as a framework for establishing meaning and identity. New Media Publishersdirectly engage the publishing community through collaboration, active dialogue, and creative work that challenges the old paradigm.
So after those definitions, I want to show you an article I read in the latest issue of (FAST COMPANY) at the airport about the tech wars between Apple, Facebook, Google and Amazon. Did anyone else read this?The reality is that publishers are surrounded by hungry new competitors: Amazon, with its steadily growing imprints; authors who publish their own e-books; online start-ups like The Atavist and Byliner, Apple’s iBooks…Swiftly and at little cost, newspapers, magazines and sites (like The Huffington Post) are hunting for revenue by publishing their own version of e-books, either using brand-new content or repurposing material that they may have given away free in the past.And by making e-books and e-mags that are usually shorter, cheaper to buy, and more quickly produced than the typical book, they are redefining what an e-book is — and who gets to publish it. But are they doing it the right way? Are they pushing to publish and be part of the game without thinking though their content strategy?
This is a chart of the industries—and companies—thatthe Fab Four are most interested in disrupting: mobile, communications, advertising and marketing, local, retail, payments, entertainment, music, gaming, cloud, and publishing/mediaGiven this fact, I’d like to present 12 steps that publishers can use to transitions from print to digital or from digital to new media thinking.
Given this fact, I’d like to present 12 areas where publishers need to make a shift in perspective in order to transitions from print to digital or from digital to new media thinking. These are relatively new perspectives for the publishing industry. Many of you may be adopting these strategies already, and THANK YOU for being thought leaders that are assisting publishers to recognize content strategy as a field and content strategists and technical communicators as people we need to collaborate with or hire to get publications into the hands of users.I found this list online, of course, but I’ve adapted it to my experience and the current status of tech development.
Digital and New Media Publishing requires a different Editorial Perspective – Little black content dress…New role for editors: job is not just what to publish, but how what is published will be discovered.Nothing substitutes for authorial and editorial judgment in contextual tags applied to content. This means JOBS for current publishers, if they get with the program, and for content strategists and technical communicators working with publishers.Your content must be looked upon as a compilation of elements that can be expanded, added to, combined with other content, reduced or eliminated as needed depending on the platform and the market you are trying to reach. (Super-Abridged, Abridged, Unabridged, Enriched, Multi-Media Enhanced,......). With a content management system and proper tagging, this should be easy to do.Context cannot be an afterthought anymore. Early, deep, and constent tagging is essential to search, or it will not be referenced and will end in obscurity.
With a proper content strategy, content management system, and proper tagging, this should is easy to do. Knowing you need these things is part of the battle.Know tools, jargon, and workflows (at every one of the conferences I learn more jargon and am able to use it appropriately; CMSs, SEOs, XML, tagging, and delivery workflows)
New Media publishing requires a different production perspective…If print is one of the outputs your readers want, great! Provide them with either a model for purchase or acquiring a print version (STC uses Print of Demand)
There are a lot of graphic design elements that publishers should take into account. Typography may seem like an outdated concern but it’s important. We’ve all seen epubs with hard to read font choices, no matter how much you change you font preferences.Do images link out, pop up/expand? What does you content lend itself to? What is the best way to convey the information graphically? Because with these devices, we have many more options!Orientation: image is an example of the resolution of the landscape view on an ipadDynamic content: customizable by user (not static)Accessibility: not just for for the disabled, but also for other countries and cultures by preferenceNeed user analysis to decide how much you will do this and how much will have to be user-proviced
New MediaPublishing requires a different Archiving perspective – Your content must be prepared for permanence with plans for updating as technology progresses (future-proofing). No more sticking a CD in some drawer.Example $5-20,000 to archive back content at STC, which is about 1/3 the content shown on of one of those shelves. But the process is complicated. Proven by the fact that:“Two out of three eBook publishers have not converted the majority of their backlist (legacy) titles to eBooks. With higher profit margins than frontlist titles, these digital assets hold significant untapped revenue potential.”Aptara’s Third Annual eBook Survey of Publishers
New MediaPublishing requires a different Marketing perspective – As much as we may hate it, our future success hinges on our ability to implement an effective marketing plan. You need to be driving internet traffic to your web page pr publication for every key title in your arsenal. SEO and PPC may be in your near future.Media publishers are now publishing daily feeds, blog posts, making commentary on things happening in the news, etc. This work becomes ongoing and constant, on a different timeline and way of working than a traditional publishing framework. This also means that publishersneed different skills, attitudes, and priorities for ever-changing online content AND that audiences are also turning to us as sources of daily content, just as they do their favorite newspaper websites, blogs, podcast series, etc. The explosion of content disseminated on Tumblr and Twitter and blogs is evidence that we find ourselvesseen as skilled in producing this kind of content—an audience expectation. A drive to make timely connections between the world today and our publications is part of a stronger drive to remain relevant and to reach new audiences who may think first of publishers as destinations rather than online clearinghouses for the world's knowledge.
New MediaPublishing requires a different Distribution perspective – You need to be finding creative and non-traditional, multiple ways to deliver your content direct to your audience. Why? See number 10 (competition).
New MediaPublishing requires a different Organizational perspective – Your organizational leaders and employees must undergo a radical education in the digital world. Start re-training now. You should look at starting a digital development department bringing in people that already have a digital skill set.Innovations happen when people are doing what they love, when they are exploring a new medium. Motivation is another important factor. "We need to recognize how much participation is actually driven by a desire to learn. There is a hunger in people to create and not just to consume."
New Media Publishing requires a different Leadership perspective – Publisher leadership has to be public and active in the marketing of the publishing house, its authors, and its content.Long gone are the days of STC says, “read this” and people buy it. Develop an Editorial for your content. Have real people behind your content.
New Media Publishing requires a different Value perspective – Focus on small content areas to show value of markup at first: findability and SEO: example of Intercom open for a few months and increased readership and metrics.
Content used to need to be rare, hidden, or locked down to be valued. One of the ways to show value today is, surprisingly to most publishers, through open access publishing. Open Access (OA) continues to be a controversial business model for publishing scholarly information, with both ardent advocates and critics. OA in aademic publishingoftenplaces the burden of payment for the publishing and distribution process on authors rather than readers; the purported benefit being that the resulting information can then be made freely available online at no cost to the reader, potentially increasing readership well beyond traditional boundaries of access. In STC’s case, this would mean increasing membership.In the case of non-academic publishing, open access has been seen to supplement other versions of a publication. For example, Tim O’Reilly has frequently spoken of his successes with open publishing—that by providing his content online for free has driven other sales and success (conference/integrity).
New Media publishers have to rethink their subscription models (and we see this with newspapers, exp., such as the NYT). Publishers have always played a middle position between customers and creators. Now they must rethink that model to decide which subscription or payment models work best for them. With magazine publishing there is a sliding scale from closed to open, with closed an exclusive or pay model, semi-open a model with some open and some closed content, a premium model is on version of open content (website or pdf) with premium content pay (ebooks, print). Open requires a transaction of information, such as registration. And free is completely open, with no requirements for access; The great thing about open content is that, if it's free, it can spread. If it's good, the audience will quote it, cite it, share it, review it, and promote it (self-police the content). “Free accomplishes everything advertising does, except it's good not evil, free not controlled, voluntarily shared not forced down throats. Instead of spending vast sums on crappy advertising to sell "content" you've locked up, just free the content and let it advertise itself. Use the unlimited resource to sell the limited resource.”
New media publishing requires a different Cost perspective – As the overall percentage of digital sales increases, the cost of the print associated resources has to shrink in proportion to the decline in print sales (there are some categories of exception).Generating Online RevenueLearn how to gauge and track reader engagement online and translate that into advertising sales.Determine which web metrics you will need to track and provide to potential advertisersAnswer the burning question: “How much traffic do I need in order to start selling?”Understand what are the optimal ad sizes and positionsComponents of an effective online rate card with the right terminology, stats and information that advertisers are looking fo
New Media publishing requires a new competition perspective: As I mentioned earlier, publishers have to compete with giants. We must provide value to authors, writers, and customers by providing unique content when and where they want it on the platforms of their choosing. If we don’t provide the information, or support our users in doing so, someone else will take charge. This should be less about competition and more about collaboration.Inforgraphic: http://99designs.com/
New media requires businesses to rethink their models and for publishing channels to be analyzed in light on new ROI. How do we measure success with new media and open publishing models? Through net sales or through some other measurement? The chart on this slide shows a survey by Aptara of publishers offering ebooksKey findings include:The main eBook production challenge facing publishers iseReader/content format compatibility issues, the same as in our first survey. Even with a nearly universal eBook format standard (EPUB), today's highly fragmented eReader market makes quality eBook production a moving target.A widespread inability to calculate return on investment (ROI) from eBooks - confirming that most publishers are not employing scalable digital workflows, but rather retrofitting print production process and forgoing significant cost savings.Only7% of publishers are implementing enhancementsin their eBooks, suggesting there's not broad awareness of the EPUB standard's inherent and existing support for links and A/V enhancements.Content remixing: open part of site and allow publications to support membership.
With increasing pressure to deliver in a new media landscape, we have even less time and resources. Everyone in every content area is feeling this pressure. The best advice I have heard during this conference is to start small. Find a manageable content area to use to show value to management. (example: Intercom open for a few months)
Wired offers ipad version free with subscriptionPro Chef with video, pop-up descriptions, reviews
2 leaders in ebook development & publishing: children’s books and Tim O’ReillyNancy Drew Choose your own adventure. Eleanor in English and French language.
CONTENT AGGREGATORS, personalized magazines
And if I’m being really honest in this presentation, I will admit that there are other membership associations who get it right, for example IEEE and their magazine Spectrum. I would say that it is competition to Intercom, but that’s not really fair when you consider the number of employees who staff the magazine. 32 editorial staff, not including at least another dozer advertising staff. With an editorial advisory board over 35 and a publications board of 20. Guess how many staff STC has for their publications!?They claim a readership of over 385,000 technology professionals.In the top navigation bar, you can see links for a magazine, multimedia (videos and audio how-tos), commentary, 6 blogs (user-driven!), special reports, newsletters, webinars, white papers, buyer’s guide. So what started as a magazine, has now become the platform for all IEEE free content.
12 required areas for publishers to shift their perspective all required in a content strategy for publishing. This is what I see as a convergence of the publishing world with that of techcomm and content stategy. This work for most publishers will require hiring experts in content strategy, acquiring new skills, and starting with small chunks of content that can show value to the org.
2 Who is speaking? publications
manager, graphic designer, technical communicator Director of Publications, Society for Technical Communication Editor, Intercom magazine @pohland PhD student, Texas Tech @STC_Intercom firstname.lastname@example.org
10The Current Publishing Landscape
Print is no longer the most important copy Use of digital and new media growing with users Print-based model is being replicated for digital and mobile—not just a format shift but a fundamental restructuring of the publishing landscape Role of publisher in disintermediated world in question (esp. pricing and delivery mechanisms)
12 Publishing and Reader Research
& FactsResearch (U.S. adult users): 28% use mobile and social location-based services (Pew 9/11) 65% use social networking sites (Pew 8/11) 71% use video-sharing sites (Pew 7/11) 33% own smartphones (Pew 7/11) 12% own eReaders (doubled in 6 months) (Pew 7/11) 13% use Twitter(Pew 7/11)Publisher Facts: Layoffs and job insecurity 5.6% increase in net revenue in 2010 over 2008 (NYT 8/11) Professional publishing, which focuses on science, medicine, law, technology and the humanities, increased by 6.3 percent from 2008 through 2010, to $3.75 billion.
13 Reading Preferences“We’re seeing a
resurgence, and we’re seeing it across allmarkets — trade, academic, professional. In each categorywe’re seeing growth. The printed word is alive and wellwhether it takes a paper delivery or digital delivery.” Tina Jordan, Vice President of the Association of American Publishers (8/2011) www.nytimes.com/2011/08/09/books/survey-shows- publishing-expanded-since-2008.html
15 Publishing Isn’t Dead, It’s
Just Different No one single entry point but a mixture of offerings Multiple user preferences Multi- authorship, interactivity, and community-driven sites Distribution-driven (not destination-driven)Print isn’t dead, it’s just one option.
16How does the focus on
new mediachange the process of makingpublications, as well as what we dowith them afterward?What are the strategies publishersneed to embrace in a new medialandscape?
17What is Digital Publishing?
Distribution via the Internet, DVD, CD, eBook, m obile Some delays in production (no immediacy) Computer-based production and wider dissemination Static user interaction with text and no interactive media (not with other users or other contexts)
18What is New Media Publishing?
Context-rich Accessible Interactive Participatory and Engaging (producers and consumers) Democratization Digitizing into bits Real-time production Messy mash-ups
23 Required Shifts in Perspective
1. Editorial 7. Leadership 2. Production 8. Value 3. Archiving 9. Cost 4. Marketing 10. Competition 5. Distribution 11. Business 6. Organization 12. Time & Resourceshttp://infogridpacific.typepad.com/using_epub/2010/06/surviving-the-transition-to-digital-publishing.html
241 Editorial Perspective New role
for editors: not just what to publish, but how what is published will be discovered. New goal/mission for pubs. Nothing substitutes for authorial and editorial judgment in contextual tags applied to content. (JOBS!) Editorial is a compilation of elements that can be: Expanded, added to, or combined with other content and/or media (text, audio, video, games, polls, social) Reduced or eliminated as needed depending on platform and market (abridged, enriched, multimedia, enhanced)
262 Production Perspective: Form &
Format Titles must start in digital form, be edited digitally, stored digitally, and output to a variety of digital-ready formats Digital Publication Formats: Flip books PDFs Blogs and/or websites (online- only and/or mobile) Hybrid approach ebooks (Basic, Enhanced) Apps Multimedia (video, audio, games, polls) Social (community and interest networks)
272 Production Perspective: Design Goal:
provide a seamless experience across devices and platforms 1. Subscribers/users and Distribution (reader surveys & metrics) 2. Typography 3. Images (placement, resolution, interactivity, co pyright) 4. Content length (expanding, annotations), layout (fixed, fluid, elastic, hybrid), and orientation 5. Touch and real-world metaphors (“click” here doesn’t work with touch) 6. Dynamic and Accessible
283 A r c h
i v i n gP e r s p e c t i v e Content must be prepared for permanence and future- proofing (a plan for updating as technology progresses) Legacy content must be dealt with Moved Scanned OCR/searchable/tagged Repackaged
294 M a r k
e t i n gP e r s p e c t i v e Effective marketing plan to drive traffic to site/pub: Analytics Daily discussion on social media Search engine optimization (SEO) Pay-per-click (PPC)
305 DistributionP e r s
p e c t i v e Creative and nontraditional ways to deliver content to users or readers. Know your audience. Conduct surveys. Use multiple media outputs. Use multiple delivery schedules. Venues for interactivity and contribution (commenting, networking, polls, games, rewards).
316 OrganizationalP e r s
p e c t i v e Organization leaders must buy in to new media publishing plans. You will need a business plan and content strategy. Employees must undergo radical education in all things digital and new media. Start re-training or re- organizing now. Start a digital development or media department. Foster innovation. Just hiring young employees or “digital natives” will not work. Consider your organization’s overall goals, global perspective, and reader/customer base.
327 L e a d
e r s h i pP e r s p e c t i v e Organizational and publishing leadership has to be public and active in marketing of the organization, its authors, and its content. These should be personal endorsements. Leaders are people, not organizations Public participation in discussions Social media discussions (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Goo gle+) Linking to own blogs or sites Authoring editorials Attending conferences as representatives
338 V a l u
eP e r s p e c t i v e Focus on small content areas to show value of markup at first: findability Organizational goals should be more important than deliverables No single channel can monopolize Pricing should not affect other channels or distributions Shifting value and distribution models from scarce/hidden/pay to common/open/free (but unique) Add value to your digital content by Rethinking subscription and access models Making content user- or reader- focused rather than institution- focused
34 Open Access Publishing More
“freely” available information (access and cost) Potential to increase readership and discoverability Shifts financial burden to authors (creators) rather than readers (consumers) http://questioncopyright.org/understa nding_free_content
35 Subscription Models Closed
(pay) Progressive or semi-open Premium Open (registration required) Free (no requirements for access)Tim O’Reilly video on open publishing,http://vimeo.com/3341489
369 Cost Perspective As digital
sales increases, the cost of the print- associated resources has to shrink in proportion to the decline in print sales. Many newspapers and some magazines are moving online-only (eliminating their print editions) Print ad revenue is nonsustaining. Advertisers want campaigns that are microtargeted, measurable, and paid for performance. Learn how to gauge and track reader engagement online and translate that into advertising sales. Determine which web metrics you will need to track and provide to potential advertisers Answer the burning question: “How much traffic do I need in order to be successful?” Understand the optimal ad sizes and positions. Create a Media Kit with the components of an effective online rate card with the right terminology, stats, and information that advertisers are looking for.
3710 Competition Perspective Competition with
giants like Amazon, Customers have become Google, Facebook, and Apple competitors, but also collaborations, partners, and suppliers Value to potential authors, writers, and readers/customers: Unique content (but not scarce, hidden, or pay-only) Open content Contextual content Community-based (exclusive) content Competitors as collaborators Mutual agreements Collaborative projects Cross-authorship and context http://99designs.com/
3811 B u s i
n e s s Pe r s p e c t i v e Each publishing channel must be analyzed in light of the relative return to the business or publisher (not necessarily monetary return) Benchmark = 50% of net sales Advertising no longer carries publications Other forms of revenue from content remixing Creative uses of content to support organization’s business model http://www.aptaracorp.com/ebook-survey2/
3912 Time and ResourcesP e
r s p e c t i v e Tactical and strategic decisions must often be made quickly with few resources (staff and finances) Tighter publishing schedules and demand for immediacy of content delivery Feels like doing more with less Need for more training Start small, let go of some control