A THOUGHTThere are two ways of spreading lightto be the candleorthe mirror that reflects itEdith Wharton
TEAMWORK DEFINITIONTeamworkis the concept of people working together as a teamfor one specific purpose under the same value andlanguages.A team consists of more than one person, each ofwhom typically has different responsibilities.
TEAM DEVELOPMENT STAGESAdjourningPerformingNormingStormingForming
Conflict is a form of relating or interacting where wefind ourselves (either as individuals or groups) undersome sort of perceived threat to our personal orcollective goals. These goals are usually to do with our interpersonalwants. These perceived threats may be either real orimagined(Condliffe, 1991, p3).CONFLICT
CULTURE DEFINITION culture is defined as the shared set of values, beliefs,norms, attitudes, behaviors, and social structures thatdefine reality and guide everyday interactions. Nothing called common sense“ it’s your own sense” Why culture is important? Impacts the way strategic moves are presented. Influences management, decision making,negotiations Culture makes international business difficult or easy
CONSEQUENCES OF CONFLICTGOOD CONSEQUENCES Conflict may improve the quality of organizationaldecisions. Conflict may bring out into the open problems thathave been previously ignored. Conflict may motivate people to appreciate eachother’s positions more fully. Conflict may encourage people to consider new ideas,thereby facilitating change. increased creativity. It forces people to clarify their views. It gives people the opportunity to test their capacities. development of group and organization cohesion
CONSEQUENCES OF CONFLICTBAD CONSEQUENCES Conflict yields strong negative emotions Conflict may divert people’s attention from the taskat hand Communication destruction between individuals orteams may be so adversely affected that anycoordination of effort between them is compromised Lowered coordination tends to lead to decrementsin organizational functioning Violence
AVOIDANCE (NO ONE WINS) Advantages Allows time to think Useful if issue is trivial Helps you not to get too involved in the conflict Keeps others from influencing you as much Disadvantages May demonstrate that you don’t care Gives impression that you’re not flexible Lets conflicts simmer/heat up rather than workingthrough them Denies mutual influenceIndividual Conflict Styles
COMPETITION (I WIN, YOU LOSE) Advantages Useful when you need to make a quick,decisive action Can encourage creativity Useful when the goal is more important thanthe relationship Disadvantages Can harm the relationship May encourage others to be passive-aggressive Limits conflicts to win-loseIndividual ConflictStyles
COMPROMISING (YOU GIVE, I GIVE) Advantages Can accomplish important goals in relatively short time Appears reasonable to most parties Disadvantages Can become an easy way out, when other solutionsmight work better (a sophisticated form of avoidance) May be seen as lose-loseIndividual Conflict Styles
ACCOMMODATING (YOU WIN) Advantages Useful when you find out you’ve been wrong You can give a little and gain a lot if the issue’s notimportant to you Allows harmony of relationship Disadvantages May reduce finding creative options Can be harmful to the relationship if one person alwaysgives in, and the other always gets their way If the accommodation is resented, conflict will likely justarise again laterIndividual Conflict Styles
COLLABORATION (WE BOTH WIN) Advantages Generates new ideas Shows respect for the other party Gains commitment to the solution from both parties Affirms importance of relationship Builds team approach to conflict management Demonstrates that conflict can be productive Disadvantages May not be worth the time and energy involved Can be manipulativeIndividual ConflictStyles
CONCLUSION One challenge of working in a team environment isthat it is essentially multi cultural. Conflict will arise from time to time. How you choose to respond can often be thedifference between success and failure. The importance of talking about conflict preventionand resolution issues up front cannot beoverstressed. It will go a long way to the enhancedproductivity that is expected from a team that isperforming well.
DIMENSIONS OF CONFLICT-HANDLINGCollaboratingCompromisingAvoidingAccommodatingCompetingUncooperativeAssertiveUnassertiveCooperativeCooperativenessAssertivenessCooperativeness: degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other’s party concerns.Assertiveness : degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his own concerns.
Rarely Always1.I argue my case with my co-workers to show themerits of my position. 1 2 3 4 52.I negotiate with my co-workers so that a compromisecan be reached. 1 2 3 4 53.I try to satisfy the expectations of my co-workers. 1 2 3 4 54.I try to investigate an issue with my co-workers tofind a solution acceptable to us. 1 2 3 4 55.I am firm in pursuing my side of the issue. 1 2 3 4 56.I attempt to avoid being put on the spot and try tokeep my conflict with my co-workers to my self. 1 2 3 4 57.I hold on to my solution to a problem. 1 2 3 4 5
Rarely Always8. I use give-and-take so that a compromise can be made. 1 2 3 4 59. I exchange accurate information with my co-workers tosolve a problem together. 1 2 3 4 510. I avoid open discussion of my differences with myco-workers. 1 2 3 4 511. I accommodate the wishes of my co-workers. 1 2 3 4 512. I try to bring all our concerns out in the open so thatthe issues can be resolved in the best possible way. 1 2 3 4 513. I propose a middle ground for breaking deadlocks. 1 2 3 4 514. I go along with the suggestions of my co-workers. 1 2 3 4 515. I try to keep my disagreements with my co-workersto myself in order to avoid hard feelings. 1 2 3 4 5
A B C D E1 4 5 3 25 9 10 11 87 12 15 14 13Total ? ? ? ? ?Outcome Competing Collaborating Avoiding Accommodating CompromisingAnswer Key
DIMENSIONS OF CONFLICT-HANDLING(B) Collaborating(E) Compromising(C)Avoiding(D)Accommodating(A) CompetingUncooperativeAssertiveUnassertiveCooperativeCooperativenessAssertivenessCooperativeness: degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other’s party concerns.Assertiveness : degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his own concerns.lose / lose lose / winwin / losewin some / lose somewin / win
LESSONS 1. Know Yourself and Your Own Culture 2. Learn others expectations 3. Check Your Assumptions 4. When in Rome . . . ask questions 5. Listen 6. Consider the Platinum Rule 7. All conflict is multi cultural
1. KNOW YOURSELF AND YOUR OWNCULTUREStarting with yourself: Examine your own beliefs, values, bases, andprejudices. How do you behave? What are your hot buttons? Locate your individual culture in the context of yourfamily, regional, and national cultures. What is the social, political and economic contextof the day? Being aware of our own cultures helpsus to be open to different ideas. We are able to compare and contrast differentapproaches without being threatened.
2. LEARN OTHERS EXPECTATIONS Expect different expectations.” Don’t Assume “ The only way we will know what our team membersexpect is to have an explicit conversation about the natureof conflict and how we prefer to deal with it when it arises. This should lead to a more general conversation thataddresses how the team wants to work together. Thesooner this happens the better. We can also read books and watch movies to understandothers culture. Learning about a new culture takes time.Some liken culture to an iceberg where over nine tenths isout of sight. So it is with culture. There is the surfaceculture, and then there is that which is hidden-deepculture.
3. CHECK YOUR ASSUMPTIONS Nothing called common sense“ it’s your own sense” We should develop acceptable communication protocols to checkout the basis of our perceptions. Failure to do so leads toinaccurate stereotypes and may foster negative feelings ofhostility. One approach is to give specific feedback on the behavior youobserved ("I noticed that you avoided eye contact when we werediscussing the situation.") and to seek clarification of yourinterpretations. ("I suppose you could have been bored. Can youtell me what was going on?") Be open to various interpretations. Your first interpretation is notnecessarily correct. Give feedback on how you felt when the specified behavioroccurred. ("I felt ignored when you avoided eye contact duringour discussion. Can you tell me what was going on?") Itsometimes helps to list all the possible interpretations you havethought of almost as if brainstorming.
4. WHEN IN ROME . . .ASK QUESTIONS Does the old saying-When in Rome, do as the Romans-still have currency? (learn about other cultures)"When we join a team that already exists we shouldlearn and be respectful of the existing culture, just as wewould when we travel." The danger of this adage, not only in a teamenvironment, is that it supports the prevailing/dominantculture and a rigidity that is counter productive tocreativity and growth. The reformulation of the adage to encourage questionsreflects an attitude of inquiry. Rather than assuming youknow, you ask to clarify why things are being donedifferently. Open ended questions are generally lessthreatening, but close ended questions will ofteneliminate confusion on a particular aspect of culture.
5. LISTEN Listening is widely acknowledged as a key conflictprevention and resolution skill. Care should be taken not to impose an approach tolistening that causes discomfort. Not all cultures arecomfortable expressing feelings in public. Used in a team environment effective listeningenables new norms to emerge that reflect a deepknowledge for one anothers ways.’Third party – compromise solution
6. CONSIDER THE PLATINUM RULE Encourages us to treat our team members as theywould like to be treated rather than the way we liketo be treatedIt is similar to the difference between sympathy andempathy. Empathy is not about "walking a mile inhis moccasins" but imagining "how he feels walkingin his moccasins." Problems with the platinum rulearise when your way and the others way clash.
7. ALL CONFLICT IS MULTI CULTURAL There is as much diversity within a culture asbetween cultures. use our cross cultural communication skills whenwe communicate between different cultural groups,we should assume that all communications areessentially cross cultural. It helps to remember that men and women form thetwo largest cultural groups.
SOLUTION Emotional intelligent training. Team must have good consequences of conflicts. Increasing team norms by team activities.(Sports Day out) Social ceremonies. Resolving any conflict in right time. Captured photos of success stories(hanged on the wall ) Giving a prize of the most performing team withless conflicts. Individual assessment before and after