Chapter 2 summarising


Published on

Gurdip Saini

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 2 summarising

  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>understand the techniques of summarizing </li></ul><ul><li>apply the techniques of summarizing </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Summary? <ul><li>A shorter version of a piece of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Presents the main ideas or the most important information. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates understanding of the materials in a condensed form. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves Writing, Reading and Critical thinking. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Summaries <ul><li>Effective summary writing involves a good understanding of the original article, the author’s purpose, main idea and supporting points. </li></ul><ul><li>A good summary presents a clear, concise idea of the main points. </li></ul><ul><li>It reports what the reader has read but without any personal interpretations or opinions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Example: <ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibians, which is the animal class of frogs and toads, were the first creatures to crawl from the sea and inhabit the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>The first animals to leave the sea and live on dry land were amphibian. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Language use <ul><li>Paraphrase information using different grammar and vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Write in the present tense and omit personal pronouns like ‘I’ and ‘me’ </li></ul><ul><li>Use transitional words for a smooth and logical flow of ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Use verbs such as the following to indicate summarized information: suggest, report, argue, tell, say, ask, question, conclude, believe, contend, compare, etc. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Guidelines <ul><li>1. Read to determine the author’s thesis. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reread and take notes of the main points. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Use the notes as a guide and write the first draft including: </li></ul><ul><li>□ a thesis statement stating the author/title of </li></ul><ul><li>the article and the main point. </li></ul><ul><li>□ identify the topic sentences to explain the main </li></ul><ul><li>idea/ideas presented (what, where, when, who,why) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include supporting details to support topic sentences where necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Edit for correct grammar, spelling, punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>and capitalization. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gathering materials <ul><li>Preview the reading </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight or underline the main ideas and important supporting details. Locate the main ideas from: </li></ul><ul><li>□ headings within a chapter </li></ul><ul><li>□ topic sentences of paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>□ end of the chapter or article </li></ul><ul><li>For shorter readings, main ideas can be located in the </li></ul><ul><li> □ opening paragraph </li></ul><ul><li> □ first sentence of body paragraph </li></ul><ul><li> □ conclusion </li></ul>
  9. 9. Arranging materials <ul><li>Write in the present tense as you are explaining as you read. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase using your own vocabulary and sentence structure. (Make the tone and style your own) </li></ul><ul><li>When short phrases are copied they must be quoted exactly. </li></ul><ul><li>Place all quotations in quotation marks. </li></ul><ul><li>Use ellipsis marks [ … ] to show where information from the original has been omitted in the quotation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Draft revision checklist <ul><li>√ Does the summary begin with the author and date? </li></ul><ul><li>√ Does the topic sentence state the controlling idea? </li></ul><ul><li>√ Are all the main ideas of the original article included? </li></ul><ul><li>√ Is the summary clear and concise? </li></ul><ul><li>√ Does the summary avoid copying from the original? </li></ul><ul><li>√ If quotations are used, are they incorporated with “quotation marks”? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Avoid copying <ul><li>Original text: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Lester, J. D. (1976). Writing Research Papers, pp.46-47. </li></ul>An acceptable summary: When writing the final research paper, students are advised to limit direct quotations taken from sources (Lester, 1976: 46-47). A plagiarized version: Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.
  12. 12. References <ul><li>Blanchard, K. & Root, C. (2004). Ready to write more – From paragraph to essay (2 nd ed.). London:Longman </li></ul><ul><li>Blass, L., Friesen, H. & Block,K. (2008). Creating Meaning – Advanced Reading and Writing. Oxford:Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Folse, K.S., Mahnke, M.K., Solomon, E.V. & Williams, L. (2003). Blueprints – Composition skills for Academic Writing. London:Thomson Heinle. </li></ul><ul><li>Harris Leonhard,B. (2002). Discoveries in Academic Writing. London:Thomson Heinle. </li></ul><ul><li>Meyers, A. (2005). Gateways to Academic Writing – Effective sentences, paragraphs and essays. London : Longman </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>THE END </li></ul>