Using paraphrase in writing Adapted from: Davies, M. Quoting, plagiarism and quoting. University of Melbourne. Retrieved f...
Learning outcomes Apply the techniques of paraphrasing
Definition of paraphrase Restate what has been said, or written, in a different way Use your own words to express another ...
The importance of paraphrasing <ul><li>To avoid plagiarism.  </li></ul><ul><li>To report ideas and information which belon...
Attributes of a good paraphrase <ul><li>The use of different words to convey the same ideas and information as the origina...
Attributes of a good paraphrase <ul><li>The grammar and vocabulary are not the same with the exception of technical terms....
Techniques in paraphrasing <ul><li>●  Use synonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Use varied sentence patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Change...
Technique 1:  Using synonyms Original <ul><li>stress </li></ul>Paraphrased <ul><li>anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>primary appli...
Technique 2:  Varying sentence structure <ul><li>Original </li></ul><ul><li>Although at least 600 of the devices are used ...
Technique 3:  Changing the order of ideas <ul><li>Original </li></ul><ul><li>Dektor claims  that the muscle tightening occ...
Technique 4: Breaking  long sentence into short ones <ul><li>Original </li></ul><ul><li>In the US, the device is used for ...
Technique 5:  Simplifying abstract ideas <ul><li>Original </li></ul><ul><li>Normally, but not under stress, these voluntar...
Introducing an outside source <ul><li>Use the phrase “ According to …” followed by the name of the author. </li></ul><ul><...
Introducing an outside source <ul><li>Use the name of the source with these verbs:  state, say, argue, believe, reveal, co...
On a final note Always ensure  information  paraphrased  is true to the  original Use a  variety of paraphrasing techniques
The end
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Chapter 2 paraphrasing

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  • Implications of plagiarism: Plagiarism is the same as robbing someone’s intellectual property. Plagiarism is the same as cheating . Plagiarism may cause someone to receive an ‘ F’ or zero for the assignment.
  • The words underlined are those which form the main ideas of the sentence Plagiarism If we plan carefully for the future, development can improve the quality of life
  • The words underlined are those which form the main ideas of the sentence
  • Chapter 2 paraphrasing

    1. 1. Using paraphrase in writing Adapted from: Davies, M. Quoting, plagiarism and quoting. University of Melbourne. Retrieved from: http://tlu.ecom.unimelb.edu.au/pdfs/crals/Lecture on 7th June 2008 and Folse, K.S., Mahnke, M.K., Solomon E.V., and Williams L. (2003) Blueprints 2 Composition skills for academic writers. USA. Thomson Heinle.
    2. 2. Learning outcomes Apply the techniques of paraphrasing
    3. 3. Definition of paraphrase Restate what has been said, or written, in a different way Use your own words to express another writer’s words and ideas
    4. 4. The importance of paraphrasing <ul><li>To avoid plagiarism. </li></ul><ul><li>To report ideas and information which belong to someone else. </li></ul><ul><li>As an alternative to quoting. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Attributes of a good paraphrase <ul><li>The use of different words to convey the same ideas and information as the original writing. </li></ul><ul><li>The length of the paraphrase is of almost equal length to the original. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Attributes of a good paraphrase <ul><li>The grammar and vocabulary are not the same with the exception of technical terms. </li></ul>The use of multiple paraphrasing techniques simultaneously
    7. 7. Techniques in paraphrasing <ul><li>● Use synonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Use varied sentence patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Change the order of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Break long sentences into short ones </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify abstract ideas </li></ul>
    8. 8. Technique 1: Using synonyms Original <ul><li>stress </li></ul>Paraphrased <ul><li>anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>primary application </li></ul><ul><li>principle use </li></ul><ul><li>at least 600 </li></ul><ul><li>about six hundred </li></ul>
    9. 9. Technique 2: Varying sentence structure <ul><li>Original </li></ul><ul><li>Although at least 600 of the devices are used in the US, there are apparently only three in Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrased </li></ul><ul><li>Britain has just three devices, whereas America uses around 600. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Technique 3: Changing the order of ideas <ul><li>Original </li></ul><ul><li>Dektor claims that the muscle tightening occurs very quickly, and can change from one word to the next, so that it is possible to pick out a word or phrase that cause stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrased </li></ul><ul><li>An anxiety-inducing word or phrase may be obvious, as the muscles can tighten between words, according to Dexter. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Technique 4: Breaking long sentence into short ones <ul><li>Original </li></ul><ul><li>In the US, the device is used for pre-employment interviews, with interviews such as “Have you used marijuana?” and for monthly checks with branch managers, asking questions like, “Do you suspect any present employees of cheating the company?” – which at least prevents a manager from setting his own pace to investigate possible suspicious behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrased </li></ul><ul><li>The PSE is used in America to ask prospective employees if they have taken narcotics and to question financial managers about possible fraud in the company. This is a prevention against branch managers conducting their own investigations. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Technique 5: Simplifying abstract ideas <ul><li>Original </li></ul><ul><li>Normally, but not under stress, these voluntary muscles vibrate at 8-12Hz, and this adds a clearly noticeable frequency-modulated component to the voice. The PSE works by analyzing this infrasonic FM component. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrased </li></ul><ul><li>The PSE analyzes vibrations of muscles in the mouth and throat which usually vibrate at 8-12Hz. However, under stress, these muscles tighten and the PSE can identify this change in the voice. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Introducing an outside source <ul><li>Use the phrase “ According to …” followed by the name of the author. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: According to Amin … </li></ul><ul><li>In …(the name of the author) view… </li></ul><ul><li>For example: In Amin’s view… </li></ul>
    14. 14. Introducing an outside source <ul><li>Use the name of the source with these verbs: state, say, argue, believe, reveal, conclude, report or suggest </li></ul><ul><li>These verbs can be used in the present or past tense. </li></ul><ul><li>Hanlon suggested there was a need to prevent the widespread use of the Dektor in the UK. </li></ul>
    15. 15. On a final note Always ensure information paraphrased is true to the original Use a variety of paraphrasing techniques
    16. 16. The end

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