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Phylum Nematoda _ Prima parte -

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I nematodi, o vermi cilindrici, rappresentano il phylum più ampio degli pseudocelomati (12000 specie descritte; forse 500.000 quelle esistenti). Nematodi a vita libera sono presenti nel mare, nelle acque dolci e nel terreno; molte specie conducono vita parassitaria.
I nematodi sono ubiquitari, essendo presenti nelle regioni polari, nei tropici, nei deserti, montagne, grandi profondità marine. Alcuni occupano habitat acquatici particolari, che comprendono sorgenti calde (nelle quali la temperatura può raggiungere 53 °C) .

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Phylum Nematoda _ Prima parte -

  1. 1. Pseudocelomati<br />Phylum Nematoda<br />
  2. 2. Nematodi <br />- vermi cilindrici -<br />I nematodi, o vermi cilindrici, rappresentano il phylum più ampio degli pseudocelomati (12000 specie descritte; forse 500.000 quelle esistenti). Nematodi a vita libera sono presenti nel mare, nelle acque dolci e nel terreno; molte specie conducono vita parassitaria. <br />I nematodi sono ubiquitari, essendo presenti nelle regioni polari, nei tropici, nei deserti, montagne, grandi profondità marine. Alcuni occupano habitat acquatici particolari, che comprendono sorgenti calde (nelle quali la temperatura può raggiungere 53 °C) . <br />
  3. 3. Nematodi <br />- vermi cilindrici -<br />Sono tra gli animali più numerosi del nostro pianeta: in un ettaro di terreno coltivato ve ne sono molti miliardi. Sostanze organiche in decomposizione ne contengono a miriadi <br />(90.000 solo in una mela marcia).<br />I Nematodi a vita libera non superano i 0,5 cm di <br />lunghezza, quelli parassiti possono superare il metro.<br />
  4. 4. Nematodi <br />- vermi cilindrici -<br />MORFOLOGIA<br />Vermi cilindrici, allungati, non segmentati.<br />Sessi separati, con dimorfismo sessuale.<br />La femmina in genere è di maggiori dimensioni.<br />maschio<br />femmina<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. MORFOLOGIA<br />
  7. 7. MORFOLOGIA<br />In sezione trasversale il corpo è costituito da …<br />parete costituita da tre strati concentrici che delimita …<br />cavità centrale<br />- pseudoceloma -<br />
  8. 8. cuticola<br />ipoderma<br />cavità<br />centrale<br />Gut<br />strato muscolare<br />
  9. 9. MORFOLOGIA<br />La parete<br />
  10. 10. MORFOLOGIA<br />La cavità centrale<br />Accoglie:<br />L’apparato digerente.<br />L’apparato genitale<br />
  11. 11. ANATOMIA<br />PRESENZA DI:<br />Sistema digerente.<br />Sistema riproduttore.<br />Sistema nervoso.<br />Scheletro idrostatico.<br />Sistema escretore.<br />ASSENZA DI:<br />Sistema circolatorio.<br />Sistema respiratorio.<br />
  12. 12. SISTEMA DIGERENTE<br />
  13. 13. SISTEMA DIGERENTE<br />Inizia con la bocca, cui fa seguito l’esofago.<br />Tra bocca ed esofago può essere presente una capsula boccale provvista di uncini.<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. SISTEMA DIGERENTE<br />L’esofago partecipa ai processi digestivi per la presenza di ghiandole che secernono enzimi idrolitici.<br />L’intestino è un condotto rettilineo la cui parete ha funzione assorbente e secretoria.<br />L’intestino termina con un’apertura anale, esterna nelle femmine e all’interno della cloaca nei maschi.<br />
  16. 16. SISTEMA RIPRODUTTORE<br />
  17. 17. SISTEMA RIPRODUTTORE<br />MASCHILE<br />Costituito da:<br />Un testicolo.<br />Dotto deferente.<br />Dotto eiaculatore che sbocca nella cloaca.<br />Presenza di organi copulatori chitinosi: gli spicoli.<br />
  18. 18. SISTEMA RIPRODUTTORE<br />FEMMINILE<br />Costituito da:<br />Due ovaie allungate.<br />Un ovidutto per ciascun ovario.<br />Gli ovidutti confluiscono in una vagina che si apre all’esterno con un orifizio vulvare.<br />Le femmine dei nematodi possono essere:<br />Ovipare: depongono le uova.<br />Ovovivipare: depongono uova contenenti un’embrione.<br />Vivipare: depongono una larva libera.<br />
  19. 19. SISTEMA RIPRODUTTORE<br />FEMMINILE<br />larve<br />Femmina di Trichinellaspiralis<br />vivipara<br />
  20. 20. CICLO EVOLUTIVO<br />Dall’uovo si schiude una forma larvale giovanile.<br /> Le larve subiscono quattro mute prima di raggiungere la maturità.<br />
  21. 21. SISTEMA<br />NERVOSO<br />Costituito da gangli e da un anello di tessuto nervoso intorno alla faringe danno origine a piccoli nervi diretti verso l&apos;estremità anteriore ed a due cordoni nervosi più grandi, uno dorsale ed uno ventrale.<br />
  22. 22. SCHELETRO <br />IDROSTATICO<br />Il liquidopresentenellopseudocelomaagisce come unoscheletroidrostatico.<br />La cuticolaagisce come un esoscheletroprimitivo.<br />
  23. 23. SISTEMA ESCRETORE<br />Sistema ghiandolare nelle specie acquatiche costituito da cellule ghiandolari ventrali, renette, che assorbono i prodotti di scarto dal liquido pseudocelomatico e li portano all’esterno tramite un poro mediano.<br /> I nematodi parassiti presentano un complesso sistema di tubuli escretori.<br />
  24. 24. METABOLISMO<br />I nematodi parassiti hanno metabolismo anaerobio; il ciclo di Krebs ed il sistema dei citocromi, sono assenti. L&apos; energia è ottenuta attraverso la glicolisi .<br />Alcuni nematodi a vita libera e stadi larvali liberi di forme parassite sono aerobi obbligati e presentano sia il ciclo di Krebs che il sistema dei citocromi. <br />
  25. 25. IMPORTANZA ECOLOGICA<br />Questi animali rappresentano uno dei principali <br />componenti della microfauna del suolo dove svolgono un ruolo <br />fondamentale nei processi di decomposizione della <br />sostanza organica.<br />Molte specie sono nocive per l’agricoltura: <br />attacano l’apparato radicale delle piante coltivate tramite <br />stiletti boccali con cui suggono la linfa.<br />
  26. 26. IMPORTANZA ECOLOGICA<br />Le specie parassite dell’uomo e degli animali<br />causano numerose patologie, soprattutto in aree tropicali.<br />
  27. 27. NEMATODI PARASSITI<br />modalità di nutrizione<br />Istofagi: si nutrono di frammenti di tessuto dell’ospite.<br />Ematofagi: si nutrono di sangue.<br />Chimivori: si trovano nel digerente nutrendosi di chimo.<br />
  28. 28. NEMATODI PARASSITI<br />azioni patogene<br />Azione spoliatrice: privano l’ospite di principi nutritivi.<br />Azione tossica: possibile produzione di sostanze tossiche.<br />Azione meccanica: i parassiti se presenti in numero elevato possono provocare ostruzioni intestinali, vascolari o delle vie respiratorie.<br />Azione traumatica: per la penetrazione del parassita.<br />Azione inoculatrice: possibile trasmissione di germi patogeni.<br />

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