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Crowdsourcing abuse deterrent formulation street price differentials


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Dr. Nabarun Dasgupta of Epidemico presents latest black market drug street prices to RADARS Scientific Advisory Board

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Crowdsourcing abuse deterrent formulation street price differentials

  1. 1. Crowdsourcing abuse deterrent formulation street price differentials Nabarun Dasgupta Chief Data Scientist Epidemico, Inc. RADARS SAB May 4, 2015
  2. 2. StreetRx ( is a collection of databases, websites, and citizen reports enabling real-time collection, organization, and display of street price data on diverted pharmaceutical controlled substances. Based on principles of crowdsourcing for public health surveillance, the site allows users to anonymously submit prices they paid or heard were paid for diverted prescription drugs.
  3. 3. External Referrals Find Addiction Treatment SAMSA, ADIN,, L’ANAPAA, DBDD Overdose Prevention Medication safety sites, HRC, naloxone Safe Storage, Disposal & Takeback FDA, Health Products Stewardship Association Safe Pain Management & Advocacy Canadian Pain Coalition,, RBK Stuttgart Harm Reduction HRC, EuroHRN Public health, pain patient advocacy, proper disposal
  4. 4. 42,058 Referrals to Health OrganizationsFrom November 1, 2010 through March 31, 2015 Drug Treatment & Harm Reduction Substance abuse treatment locators, overdose prevention Chronic Pain Advocacy and support organizations Proper Disposal and Storage DEA and non-profit organizations 1,750 1,438 1,318 1,420 4,565 1,356 1,432 2,062
  5. 5. Cross-Validation of Black Market Prices 6 Dasgupta et al. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2013
  6. 6. Dasgupta et al. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2013
  7. 7. Events per 100,000 population (overall public health burden) Events per 10,000 unique recipients (adjusted for drug availability) RADARS® System Drug Diversion (law enforcement)
  8. 8. Can the Black Market Discriminate betweenADFs?Do different deterrence strategies and platforms result in discernible street price differences? STEP1 STEP3 STEP2 STEP4 USA Data in USD Nov 1, 2010 through Mar 31, 2015 Solid oral formulations Compare 14 ADF to unprotected street price per milligram, within active ingredient Geometric means and 95% CI N = 49,995 Non-parametric Wilcoxan rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) tests (Partial-) Antagonists: Subutex vs. Suboxone Prodrugs: morphine vs. codeine; Vyvanse vs. amphetamines Phyical barriers: Zohydro vs. Hysingla ER vs. IR hydrocodone; OxyContin OP vs. OC; Opana ER reformulation vs original; Xartemis XR vs. IR oxycodone; Exalgo vs. IR hydromorphone; Concerta vs. Ritalin LA vs. methylphenidate, Nucynta ER vs. IR tapentadol Not enough data to evaluate yet: Embeda,Targin(iq), Oxytrex, Oxecta, Quillivant XR, Talwin NX, Amrix
  9. 9. Descriptive Results Abuse/tamper deterrent formulation Original unprotected formulation 95% Confidence interval of the geometric mean
  10. 10. Percent Discount for ADF Versions Putative abuse-deterrent formulation versus unprotected formulations with same active ingredient, using statistical comparison that is less influenced by outliers. Physical Barrier Prodrug(Partial-) Antagonist Concerta Exalgo OpanaER OxyContinOP Zohydro Vyvanse codeine Suboxone tablet XartemisXR p<.01 z -38 p<.01 z -38 p<.01 z -3.0 p<.01 z -3.7 p=.78 z 0.3 p<.01 z -8.6 p<.01 z -13 p=.34 z -0.9 p=.24 z -1.2 TBD ? OROSOROSINTAC INTAC PolyOx RitalinLA p<.01 z -3.9 SODAS NucyntaER p=.10 z -1.6 INTAC HysinglaER p=0.46 z -0.7 INTAC INTAC
  11. 11. Thank You & Contact Info Boston, MA @street_rx @epidemico