Imogen Casebourne - why won't they comply?

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Imogen Casebourne, Director of Learning at Epic, presented at LearningNow on 1st May 2013. In her session, she shared case studies and best practice advice on how using engaging design can improve your compliance training.

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  • Hello everyone. Thank you for coming. I’m Imogen Casebourne, Director of Learning at Epic. Epic is based in Brighton, Rio and New York and we’ve been using technology to support learners for over 25 years.  Today I’m going to look at what compliance training sets out to achieve and why it isn’t always  succeeding.And I’m going to talk about a number of techniques for making compliance training more persuasive, more effective and even, more fun
  • Learning technologies have the potential to embed learning in the workplace and go a long way to adressing the gaps between training and culture. But it isn’t always living up to its reputation.A few years ago, I’ve was at an extended family gathering sitting next to a now retired Civil servant who, on hearing what I did for a living, told me with some satisfaction that he always clicked straight through any e-learning courses he was assigned without looking at the contents. And this was a man who was entirely conscientious in other areas of life and work.So what is going wrong?
  • It’s worth taking a step back for a moment and thinking about what we mean when we set out to change behaviour with compliance training.Often it’s about changing behaviour, sometimes it’s about maintaining behaviour, but whichever it is, influencing behaviour isn’t easy.  People won’t change if they aren’t convinced they should, and they may struggle even if they are convinced, as anyone who given up on a New Years resolution will know.These two guys are Charles Duhigg and BJ Fogg and both have written thought provoking books on the subject.There’s a great story in Charles Duhigg’s fascinating book ‘The Power of Habit’ which looks at organisational as well as personal change, about how Paul O’Neill made the Alcoa aluminium company the safest in the world. He did it by integrating health and safety into processes and performance objectives, and ensuring the workplace was full of triggers which prompted people to think about health and safety, He ensured people remained motivated by firing managers who didn’t comply.It’s clear that thebehavior change mandated in many compliance programmes is unlikely to be achieved by asking people to take a single e-learning course. However, that isn’t to say that learning technologies can’t play a powerful role. Way back in 2003 BF Fogg wrote persuasive technologies, which outlined a number of ways in which computers and mobile devices can change what we think 
  • BF Fogg identifies 3 key aspects to behaviour change – the ability to do things differently, motivation to change, and triggers for practicing the behaviour.So, where can learning technologies help?Well, perhaps ability is the most obvious match for an e-learning course, which can help train people to do something.That can be blended learning, e-learning or multi-device learning available on an iPad or iphone as well as a PC.Motivation can be also addressed by what Fogg has identified as persuasive technologies, but I’ll come back to that later, and triggers might be things like reminders or job aids such as side-kicks – again I’ll come back to that later.
  • So let’s leave aside motivation and triggers for a moment, where you’ve established there is an ability gap, you need a course, but there is still a lot of potential for things to go wrong. Lets take a look at 5 of those..‘I did this course last year, and the year before!’ ‘It’s so inflexible, it makes me feel that they have no interest in me.’ ‘Most of the course was irrelevant to me’ ‘‘The course was sooo boring. It felt like a waste of my valuable time.’ ‘There is so much info that it’s hard to remember and apply anything in the workplace.’
  • Part of the problem is that people are often asked to reaccredit every year, using the same course every time.  Even if they haven’t already done the course, if they have been doing a job for years, much of itwon’t be new information.  Forcing busy people out of the workplace to attend a course telling them what they already know wastes everyone’s time, and it won’t make them feel trusted or respected.
  • The solution to this is to give people who have already been trained, the opportunity to show what they know without working through an entire course they have already taken.  In 2011 Epic created a Health and Safety app for NHS South Central, where learners could take a diagnostic to re-accredit, with non-mandatory interactive and video based training available for anyone who failed to pass first time or felt in need of a refresher. We are now working with a major financial institution, to introduce diagnostics to enable learners to take only those elements of a course that they need to do. 
  • People resent compliance training if they have to come into work, or out of work or go to classroom to do it.
  • It’s much better to allow the training to come to them.What both CSL and the NHS have also done is give learners more flexibility about when and where they take some mandatory training. Making compliance training multi-device means that ‘found time’ on train journeys can be used for accreditation, so people have more flexibility about when and where they take mandatory training.So you design the course once, using a multi-device authoring tool such as GoMo learning which employs best-practice responsive design, and publish that same course to multiple devices of various shapes and sizes. The built-in responsive design means that the course automatically adapts itself for the shape and size of the device the learner us using.
  • Not everything is relevant to everyone. Compliance training is too often one-size-fits-all, which too leads to courses filled with information, all of which may be important, but not for most people.
  • Introducing a role-filter (you can see some examples here) lets you include everything in the course, but invite learners take only those topics which are directly relevant to them.
  • But mandatory e-learning, for example, explaining a complex piece of new legislation around the technicality of how websites work, doesn’t have to be dull.Good design and appealing visuals ensure that this type of course feels engaging and fun and isn’t a turn-off.Let’s take a closer look.
  • But mandatory e-learning, for example, explaining a complex piece of new legislation around the technicality of how websites work, doesn’t have to be dull.Good design and appealing visuals ensure that this type of course feels engaging and fun and isn’t a turn-off.Let’s take a closer look.
  • OK so let’s take a look at the fifth and final reason why compliance courses can fail. Clients sometimes tell me that they need a compliance course to raise ‘awareness’’ of an issue. This is dangerous for two reasons:  it’s a recipe for making a compliance course long, irrelevant and dull because it’s hard to definitely say that people don’t need to be ‘aware’ of any one particular piece of informationit might get you sued! (I’ll come back to this in a moment)
  • As Cathy Moore points out with her action mapping approach, and as Roger Mager was saying back in the seventies, it’s vital to ask yourself: Why do we need to raise awareness? What will people do differently as a result of being aware? How will I know? If you define clear goals then it will be easy for learners to apply what they’ve learned. Remember, compliance is about behaviour, and behaviour is about doing. You may need to know things in order to do them, but ultimately it is about doing. Why might it get you sued? If you’re wondering how you could get sued for designing boring compliance training - in 2010, a US company was considered not to have an effective anti-bribery policy, even though it had instituted training. The Justice Department even went so far as to imply that the training could be actually be considered to have enabled the company to allow the behaviour to continue by creating a possible defence that could be used in court. If there weren’t other good reasons for aligning training closely with performance objectives and processes then this is surely one!  Once you’ve identified clear goals, it’s likely that many of the strategies for change won’t involve designing training. Instead you may build triggers for correct behaviours into company processes, and increase motivation byaligning them to performance goals.Now, if lots of people don’t know about an issue, an awareness campaign may be appropriate. Short animations, infographics and video elements and email shots could form part of that campaign.  But any course you create should focus on giving people the ability to do something differently when they’ve finished.http://www.corporatecomplianceinsights.com/how-well-does-compliance-and-ethics-training-actually-reduce-riskAccording to papers filed by the government in an FCPA prosecution in 2012, the defendant company (RAE Systems) had learned of a practice of bribery in its joint venture in China but also concluded that “implementing an effective compliance program could hurt sales.”  Company personnel did, however, want to “evidence” that they were trying to stop bribery and so they provided “some FCPA training” to at-risk personnel.  In this attention-getting case, the Justice Department seemed to suggest – somewhat ominously – that the training (which it labeled a “half measure”) may have enabled the criminality to continue (by creating a possible defense in the event the bribery was detected).
  • Remember, this is all about behaviour, so it’s vital that you let people practice the behaviours that you want to see. For example, managers are unsure when giving feedback or conducting interviews or talking with reports about areas that touch on diversity legislation. If your course offers meaningful and realistic practice opportunities for areas where they are unsure, learners are more likely to grab at it with both hands than complain that it is boring.
  • So to recap on how learning technologies can effectively help with the ability part of behaviour change, here are 5 things you can do to make compliance courses go well.Use role-filters so people see what’s relevant to themUse diagnostics to let re-accrediting people show what they knowMake clever use of visuals and media to ensure courses are engagingSpend the time upfront to identify the behaviours you want to see and make sure the course teaches thoseDeliver your course across multiple devices to give learners flexibility about where and when to take it
  • So those were techniques for ensuring that courses addressing ability are as effective as possible.Motivation is a tougher nut to crack with learning technologies, but there are ways that learning technologies can help.People are unlikely to allow you to do what you tell them if they don’t think you have sufficient authority. This is where war stories from practitioners in the field can be invaluable. For example, a large mining corporation was having problems with the effectiveness of its health and safety training until it employed ex-miners to recount stories about mining accidents and near-misses that they had personally experienced. The rate of accidents for people attending this course went significantly down.In 2012 Epic worked with the BBC to record accounts from leading programme makers about how they approached making programmes about controversial events, such as the Iraq war.  As well as ensuring your course has the needed authority, narrative is a far more memorable and powerful technique for learning than presenting facts, as it’s stored in a different part of the brain. A part of the brain from which people find it easier to retrieve information.
  • UK psychologist Richard Wiseman published a fascinating book called ‘Rip it Up’. In 2012 This outlines evidence for the theory that if you can get people to behave as if they believed something, they will come to believe it. This rather turns things on their heads.So rather than addressing hearts and minds to get people to change their behaviour, getting people to make tiny changes to what they actually do, may help change what they believe. There is also a body of research that suggests that getting people to perform a task in a virtual environment can have a similar psychological impact to getting them to perform it in the real world, so getting people to perform micro-actions in a game environment may help convince them that the actions are worthwhile. For example, in this recycling game, you score points by correctly disposing of pieces of rubbish in the appropriate bins, with extra points for scrolling to identify an unusual bin, perhaps for batteries.As well as rapidly teaching people which bin is for which item, it helps engender the appropriate recycling behaviour, so people start to believe that putting things in the right bin is important to them.Epic has created a number of games, on subjects as diverse as health and safety, management decision-making, vehicle mechanics and workplace learning.
  • The third and final element Fogg identifies as important for behaviour change (orbehaviour maintenance) is triggers. Anyone who has unsuccessfully tried to diet or give up smoking will know that even if you know what to do, and you want to do it, it isn’t always that easy! Remember, triggers act as calls to action. So the smell of donuts may be an unwanted trigger to a dieter.In fact, the wrong triggers in the environment can lead to you behaving, without thinking, in ways you didn’t intend, or a lack of a trigger can mean you just plain forget to do the new behaviour you did intend. Triggers for the behaviours you want to see in the workplace should be embedded into your processes, but learning technologies may be able to help here too.Mobile devices, combined with QR codes, offer the perfect opportunity to position triggers in the workplace to support programmes such as health and safety and fire awareness.Waving your mobile device over a QR code can trigger a web page to load and reveal instructions or a warning. QR codes can either be woven directly into training, where people are asked to walk around the workplace and identify issues as part of an initial course, or they can be used to provide alerts or just-in-time information in difficult or dangerous environments.
  • Motivation: Include accounts of people who have had to escape from burning buildingsAbility: In addition to wholesale fire drills, ask learners to identify QR codes on their nearest fire extinguisher and fire exitsAbility and motivation: For fire wardens, consider a mobile game where learners match a fire extinguisher to type of fire, as this will ingrain practice far more deeply than telling them which fire extinguisher to useTriggers: intermittently send text messages asking people to text back, identifying their nearest fire exit given where they are on receiving the message 
  • So in summary make sure compliance training is persuasive, effective and fun by ensuring you plan for all three areas ,ability, motivation and triggers.Make sure courses addressing ability are effective by: Aligning them to measureable workplace goals and using diagnostics and role-filters to make it relevant, as well as employing engaging media and visuals and making them multi deviceAnd tackle motivation by Using persuasive techniques such as engaging visuals, storytelling, simulations and games to bring concepts to life and make sure people are able to produce the behaviour you wantFinally, consider using mobile devices as one means to ensure that the triggers in your workplace are promoting the behaviours you want to see .By making the most of mobile devices to link training to workplace behaviour
  • Just to look to the future – 2014 will see launch of Google glasses and the iwatch. If they take off, these devices could become even more ubiquitos than smart phones are today. This will be interesting times. In terms of embedding triggers in the environment, they will certainly offer new opportunities, but there will be significant privacy issues to consider.
  • So that’s what we think – but what do you think?
  • Imogen Casebourne - why won't they comply?

    1. 1. Imogen CasebourneDirector of LearningEpicWhy won‟t they comply?Techniques for making compliancetraining powerful, persuasive, effectiveand funFor all the latest news about the event follow us on Twitter@epictalk and use the hashtag #LNcomply@epictalk @towardsmaturity #LNcomply
    2. 2. What‟s wrong withcompliance e-learning?It‟s boring@epictalk @towardsmaturity #LNcomply
    3. 3. Influencing behaviour@epictalk @towardsmaturity #LNcomply
    4. 4. Coursese-learningMulti-devicelearningPersuasivetechnologiesRemindersSidekicks1 2 3MotivationAbility Triggers3@epictalk @towardsmaturity #LNcomply
    5. 5. Five things that can go wrong“Most of thecourse wasirrelevant tome.”„„The coursewas soooboring. It feltlike a wasteof myvaluabletime. ”“I did thiscourse lastyear, andthe yearbefore!”“There is so much info thatit‟s hard to remember andapply anything in theworkplace. ”“It‟s soinflexible. Itmakes mefeel thatthey haveno interestin me.”
    6. 6. Doing the same courseevery year“I did this course last year, and the year before!”
    7. 7. Solution:Let learners show they knowthe material
    8. 8. It isn‟t flexible“It‟s so inflexible. It makes me feel that they have no interest in me.”
    9. 9. Solution :Make it multi-device!
    10. 10. Wading through irrelevantmaterial“Most of the course was irrelevant to me.”
    11. 11. Solution :Personalise it
    12. 12. Dense, text-heavy or slownarrator-driven courses„„The course was sooo boring. It felt like a waste of my valuable time.”
    13. 13. Solution :Make it visual and make it fun!
    14. 14. It‟s all about „awareness‟„„There is so much info that it‟s hard to remember and applyanything in the workplace.‟‟
    15. 15. What do you want people to do?How will you tell they are doing it?Align training with performanceSolution :Define clear goals@epictalk @towardsmaturity #LNcomply
    16. 16. Solution :Offer practice opportunities
    17. 17. Five things that can go rightDiagnosticsRole-filters Engagingvisuals,animationand mediaMulti-devicedeliveryputtinglearners incontrolGoal and performancefocused courses that offerpractice opportunities
    18. 18. Motivation:harness thepower ofstorytelling@epictalk @towardsmaturity #LNcomply
    19. 19. Motivation:harness thepower ofgames@epictalk @towardsmaturity #LNcomply
    20. 20. Triggers:use mobile technologyto situate learning@epictalk @towardsmaturity #LNcomply
    21. 21. Triggers:use mobile technologyto trigger action
    22. 22. Tying it all together
    23. 23. Use mobile devicesto build triggers intothe workplace1 2 33Ability Motivation TriggersFree learners withmulti-device designDefine specificgoalsEmploy diagnosticsand role filtersUse engagingvisuals and mediaUse persuasivetechniques such asengaging visuals,storytelling, games@epictalk @towardsmaturity #LNcomply
    24. 24. Google glasses slideGoogle Glass
    25. 25. But what doyou think?@epictalk @towardsmaturity #LNcomply

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