Introwwiiforumlecture 090310130155-phpapp01


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Introwwiiforumlecture 090310130155-phpapp01

  1. 1. Introduction toWWIIUS HistoryMcIntyre
  2. 2. 2Quick Facts (write 2-3)A. War Costs1. US Debt 1940 - $9 billionUS Debt 1945 - $98 billion• The war cost $330 billion -- 10 timesthe cost of WWI & as much as allprevious federal spending since 1776
  3. 3. 3Quick Facts (write 2-3)B. Human Costs
  4. 4. 4Quick Facts (write 2-3)B. Human Costs1. 50 million people died (compared to15 million in WWI)• 21.3 million Russians (7.7 million civilians)• 11 million died as a result of the HOLOCAUST(6 million Jews + 5 million others)
  5. 5. 5When?1939Sept.1 -GermanyinvadesPoland(officialstart to thewar)Sept. 3-Britain &Francedeclarewar onGermanyDec. 7 –Japan bombsPearl Harbor;US enters theWar1941May -GermansSurrenderSept. -AtomicBombingofHiroshima&Nagasaki,JapaneseSurrender1945•1939-1945•US involvement 1941-1945
  6. 6. 6Who?Allies AxisGreat BritainFrance(note: France surrenderedto Germany in 1940 (after6 weeks of fighting)United StatesRussiaGermanyItalyJapan(major powers) (major powers)
  7. 7. 7Major LeadersAdolf HitlerNazi GermanyBenito MussoliniItaly
  8. 8. 8Major LeadersHideki TojoJapanese Prime MinisterWinston ChurchillBritish Prime Minister
  9. 9. 9Major LeadersFranklin Delano RooseveltUS PresidentJosephStalinRussian Leader
  10. 10. 10Why? (underlying causes of WWII)1. Treaty of VersaillesA. Germany lost land tosurrounding nationsB. War Reparations1) Allies collect $ to payback war debts to U.S.2) Germany must pay $57trillion (modernequivalent)3) Bankrupted theGerman economy &embarrassed GermansLloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilsonduring negotiations for the Treaty
  11. 11. 11Why? (underlying causes of WWII)2. World-wide DepressionA. The Depression madeGermany’s debt evenworseB. Desperate people turnto desperate leaders1) Hitler seemed toprovide solutions toGermany’s problems1923 - Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks
  12. 12. 12Why? (underlying causes of WWII)2. World-wide Depression2) Hitler providedscapegoats forGermany’s problems(foreigners, Jews,communists, Roma(Gypsies), mentallyill, homosexuals)3) Kristallnacht -vandalism &destruction of Jewishproperty &synagogues
  13. 13. 13Why?3. Rise of Totalitarian RegimesA. In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are notviewed as important as the needs of the nationTotalitarianismCommunistDictatorship(USSR)FascistDictatorship(Germany, Italy)MilitaryDictatorship(Japan)Fascism: militarygovernment withbased on racism &nationalism withstrong support fromthe businesscommunity
  14. 14. 14Why?4. Isolationism of Major PowersA. Why was the U.S. Isolationist?1. Great Depression (problems at home)2. Perceptions of WWIa. WWI did not seem to solve muchb. People began to think that we’d gotinto WWI for the wrong reasons(greedy American businessmen!)
  15. 15. 15Why?4. Isolationism of Major Powers3. Opposition to war (Pacifism)a. Washington Conference -Limits on size of countrys naviesb. Kellogg-Briand pact -condemned war as a way to solvingconflicts
  16. 16. 16Why?4. Isolationism of Major PowersB. This led to policies of “Appeasement”1. Appeasement: give dictators whatthey want and hope that they won’twant anything else2. Begins with Japanese invasion ofManchuria, Italian invasion of Ethiopia,and continues with Hitler . . .
  17. 17. 17So What Was Hitler Asking For?Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum”•Austria - PeacefullyAnnexed in 1938German Troops Parade in Streets ofCzechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939
  18. 18. 18So What Was Hitler Asking For?Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum”•Sudentenland -(now part of CzechRepublic)•MunichConference - GreatBritain & France giveto Hitler in return forpeace•Hitler then invadesthe rest ofCzechoslovakiaGerman Troops Parade in Streets ofCzechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939
  19. 19. 19So What Was Hitler Asking For?Return of German Speaking Lands•NonaggressionPact Russia staysout of the war inreturn for 1/2 ofPolandHitlers triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939•Great Britain &France finallydeclare war onGermany
  20. 20. 20How Did Hitler Make War?Blitzkrieg “Lightning War”In the next year,Hitler invades:•Denmark•Norway• The Netherlands,•FranceHitler in Paris
  21. 21. 21US AssistanceRoosevelt provided aid to the Allies:Lend-Lease - 1939•US “lent” war materials tocash-strapped GreatBritainLondon Firefighter Tackles an Air Raid BlazeAtlantic Charter•US secretly meets withEngland to commit todefeating Germany
  22. 22. 22Meanwhile … in the PacificPearl Harbor: “a date which will live in infamy”USS Arizona Sinking in Pearl HarborWhat?•Surprise attack by theJapanese on Americanforces in Pearl Harbor,HawaiiEffect?•US declares war on Japan& other Axis powers