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Leading Change by John P. Kotter

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A summary of the key points in John Kotter's Leading Change, with particular applications at Williams College.

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Leading Change by John P. Kotter

  1. 1. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 krt4@williams.edu x3542 Learning & Development Manager Office of Human Resources Kevin Thomas John Kotter – Leading Change
  2. 2. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • 8 step process • 3 Main phases Kotter’s 8 Step Model
  3. 3. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Each step builds on the next. • Errors in one step will cause problems in later steps. Kotter’s 8 Step Model
  4. 4. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • In complex changes, stages can overlap. Kotter’s 8 Step Model
  5. 5. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • In complex changes, stages can overlap. Kotter’s 8 Step Model
  6. 6. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Difficulties cannot be underestimated. Kotter’s 8 Step Model
  7. 7. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Changes tend to beget changes Kotter’s 8 Step Model
  8. 8. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Management and Leadership are complementary skills • Organizations have tended to emphasize management over leadership Management vs. Leadership
  9. 9. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Management skills are: o tactical o technical o impersonal Management vs. Leadership
  10. 10. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Leadership skills are: o visionary o holistic o interpersonal Management vs. Leadership
  11. 11. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Leadership skills are: o visionary o holistic o interpersonal Management vs. Leadership
  12. 12. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Leadership skills are: o visionary o holistic o interpersonal Management vs. Leadership
  13. 13. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Leadership skills are: o visionary o holistic o interpersonal Management vs. Leadership
  14. 14. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • People slow walk • Innovation is stifled • Changes don’t stick When Change is Overmanaged
  15. 15. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Step 1: Increase urgency
  16. 16. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Sources of Complacency
  17. 17. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • What in the Williams culture promotes complacency? • What in the Williams culture promotes a sense of urgency? 1-2-All Questions
  18. 18. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Complacency Factors Urgency Factors Age of the organization New leadership Lack of clear performance standards High achievement culture Lack of clear feedback Passionate, engaged students and alums Happy talk (US News & World Report) Job security Complacency and Urgency At Williams
  19. 19. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Step 2: Build the Guiding Coalition
  20. 20. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Pitfall 1: Going it Alone
  21. 21. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Pitfall 2: Low Credibility Committee
  22. 22. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Position Power Enough formal authority to get things done, and to overrule naysayers. • Expertise Diverse points of view and relevant subject matter experts • Credibility Members have good reputations among various stakeholder groups. • Leadership Members have strong leadership track records. Characteristics of an Effective Guiding Coalition
  23. 23. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Create opportunities to bond • Off site retreats • Lots of sharing Build Trust among Coalition Members
  24. 24. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Develop a common goal o Sensible to the head o Appealing to the heart The Task of the Coalition
  25. 25. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Step 3: Developing a Vision and Strategy
  26. 26. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • “It’s going to rain soon. Let’s get under the gazebo and eat our lunch.” • Context • Vision • Call to action Example
  27. 27. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 1. Leader often has a rough draft, brings to guiding coalition 2. Painstaking, interactive conversations 3. Work product: 5 Minute Elevator Speech about the Change (Kotter) or 30-3-30 (Lyman & D’Alosio) Steps
  28. 28. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Step 4: Communicating the Change Vision
  29. 29. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 The Scope of the Challenge
  30. 30. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Pile of gloves (Switch) • Sinking ship vs. Last Voyage (Bridges) • “Teach It Forward” Use images and metaphors
  31. 31. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Guiding the coalition should take opportunities to segue to talking points about the change o performance reviews o staff meetings o 1:1s Repetition
  32. 32. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Dietary advice Lead by Example
  33. 33. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Shop the change around with various stakeholder groups • Invite doubts and criticism • Allow hidden obstacles to come out of the woodwork • Modify plans based on conversation Refine the Vision through Dialog
  34. 34. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Step 5: Empowering Action • Fedex delivery • Teradata
  35. 35. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Lack of skills • Supervisory style • Formal Structures • Poorly designed systems Barriers to Empowerment
  36. 36. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • What are the barriers to empowerment at Williams? 1-2-All Discussion Question
  37. 37. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • Accountability varies across different levels of the organization • Structures don’t encourage coordinated action • Performance management system does nothing to drive large scale change or teamwork Barriers to Empowerment at Williams
  38. 38. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Step 6: Short Term Wins • Reward change agents • Create stronger buy in o fence sitters o doubters & haters • Refine the vision
  39. 39. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Step 7: Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change • Use credibility to up the ante • Align interdependent systems • Build leadership & management talent • Shed antiquated structures & habits
  40. 40. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 Step 8: Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture • Engraining values & habits • Use succession planning to advance high potential leaders • Help doubters and haters move on
  41. 41. John Kotter – Leading Change Kevin R.Thomas, Manager, Learning & Development · Office of Human Resources · krt4@williams.edu · 413-597-3542 • So What? • Now What? Concluding questions 1-4-All

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