Global Slide Show: Chinese Dynasties

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  • Tobin Asher
  • Tobin Asher
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  • Erika Baikoff
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  • Tobin Asher, Erika Baikoff
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  • Global Slide Show: Chinese Dynasties

    1. 1. The history of Chinese dynasties have been bloody with power hungry rulers. They were known to even kill their relatives as in the case of the emperor Shi Huangdi. Most emperors were set on uniting all of China, and though some did, it came with the cost of human life. Though many rulers had different views, the different dynasties each contributed to what China is today.
    2. 2. Q uic kT im e™ and a de c ompre ss or are ne e ded to se e t his pi c ture . Q uic kT im e™ and a de c ompre ss or are ne e ded to se e t his pi c ture . Throughout Chinese history, there were many dynasties and rulers. Two dynasties in particular made a great impact on Chinese life. These dynasties were the Qin and the Han. Despite the fact that they were both successful empires, they were governed very differently and had different belief systems. The way the empires were run made a great difference to the extent and length of their success. The Qin believed in a Legalistic way of ruling, and the Han taught Confucianism. Though both dynasties added greatly to what China would become, the Han endured longer.
    3. 3. • The first emperor of the Qin Dynasty named himself Shi Huangdi, which literally means “First Emperor.” • Shi Huangdi created an autocracy in China  Autocracy – Government has unlimited power • Under the Emperor’s rule peasants were forced to work against their will • Huangdi cost his people their freedom in order to unite China
    4. 4. • The Qin put into action a Legalist form of government  Legalist rulers would reward people who did what they were supposed to do, and do it well They would severely punish people who were disobedient
    5. 5. • The Qin divided their territory up into 36 commanderies (click here for a list of the Qin commanderies)  Commanderies – A province • Each commandery was divided into smaller counties  Had peasants build a network of highways through China
    6. 6. • Built the Great Wall of China  Built by thousands of peasants  Built with earth, stones, and wood frames  Later modifications were made during the Ming Dynasty  The Great Wall is a set of walls, not one complete structure  Built to keep enemies out and the Chinese people in
    7. 7. • Established Chinese:  Writing  Law  Currency • Created irrigation projects and systems • Before Huangdi died, he built an elaborate tomb guarded by over 6,000 terra-cotta warriors Huangdi’s terra-cotta army
    8. 8. • The Han Dynasty was split into two periods  Former Han – 206 BC to 8 AD  Later Han – 25 to 220 AD • The first emperor of the Han Dynasty was Liu Bang • Bang established a centralized government • Bang’s government was a bureaucracy • The Han dynasty was not as hash on it’s people as the Qin
    9. 9. • The government used some of Confucious’ ideas (click here to learn more about Confucianism) • Some government jobs included a examination for the applicants to test their knowledge of Confucianism • They used Confucian scholars as court advisors Confucius
    10. 10. • The capital region was called Sili
    11. 11. • The Han invented paper 105 AD • Some of their other inventions included:  Collar Harnesses  Two-bladed plows  Wheel barrows • Government created monopolies for the mining of salt, iron forging, coin minting, and alcohol brewing
    12. 12. Q uic kT im e™ and a de c ompre ss or are ne e ded to se e t his pi c ture . Q uic kT im e™ and a de c ompre ss or are ne e ded to se e t his pi c ture . During the Tang and Song Dynasties, China experienced a period of great progress.They became more technologically advanced, wealthier, and created a better system of government and leadership that worked. The majority of citizens living in China during these two dynasties were content, because everyone got what they deserved. The great progress in these two dynasties were greatly affected by the emperors ruling during this time period. China might not have experienced a golden age if they had different emperors in power.
    13. 13. • A general orginally named Li Shimin • Killed his rival brothers and forced his father, the first Tang Emperor, to give him the throne • When Li Shimin became emperor he took the name Tang Taizong • Tang Taizong means “Great ancestor” • Military campaigns extended to Manchuria, Vietnam, and the Aral Sea • Reformed China’s government organization and law code • Taizong’s government organization and law code became a model for the rest of East Asia
    14. 14. • Chinese Empire is expanded • Taizong’s armies reconquered the northern and western lands China lost during the dynasties after the Han Dynasty • Korea went under China’s influence • Roads and canals started by the Sui were expanded • Taxes were lowered • Land was taken from the wealthy and given to the peasants • Foreign trade and advancements in agriculture were promoted • China’s bureaucracy was restored through the revival of the civil service examination system
    15. 15. • Arrived at Tang Taizong’s court to become a secondary wife to the emperor • After Taizong’s death, Wu Zhao became his son’s favored wife • She became the emperors chief wife, also known as an empress • When the emperor became sick, Empress Wu virtually ruled china on his behalf • After the emperor’s death his two sons held the throne • Empress Wu took over the throne at age 65 because her sons were unable to rule China properly • Empress Wu lost power at age 85
    16. 16. • Established during the Han Dynasty, but failed to work • Schools were opened around China • Schools taught poetry, confucianism, and other subjects • Schools were open to all of China’s citizens, but only the wealthy could afford to attend these schools • After attending school, students would take an examination • A high score on the exam made you a scholar-official • Men who had political connections received high positions as scholar-officials without passing the exam
    17. 17. • Porcelain -Invented in the late 700’s -White ceramic made out of a mineral and special clay that can only be found in china • Mechanical Clock -invented in the 700’s -A clock who’s movements were regulated by running water; machinery • Gunpowder -Invented during the 800’s -A mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and saltpeter; which made an explosive powder • Block Printing -Created during the 700’s -One block on which a whole page is cut
    18. 18. • Tang rulers had to bring back high taxes on the peasants to afford military expansion • Taxes caused citizens trouble and did not help pay for the government • When famine took over China, peasants traveled the countryside in bandit gangs • 751, Arab armies conquered the Chinese at the Battle of Talas • Frequent border attacks and internal rebellions weakened the power of the government • 907, Chinese rebels destroyed the Tang capital and killed the last Tang emperor
    19. 19. • Founder of the Song dynasty • His real name was Chao K’uang-yin • Reunited the majority of China after the Five Dynasties period • Ruled China from (960-979) • A leading general during the Chou Dynasty
    20. 20. • 1100’s, after the decline of the Tang, Manchurian people called the Jurchen invaded the part of China which was under the rule of the Song • The Jurchen forced the Song to move south towards the Huang-He • 1126-The Song established a new capital at Hangzhou • The southern part of China became very prosperous and wealthy under the Song’s ruling
    21. 21. • Upper class made up of educated scholar-officials and their families • This upper class was called the gentry  Members of the gentry wore their finger nails up to 2 inches to show that they did not do any physical labor  Their fingernails did not interfere with their daily tasks such as calligraphy, painting, or writing poetry • The middle class was made up of merchants, shopkeepers, artisans, minor officials, and others • Below the middle class were the peasants • Peasants were the largest class • Peasants worked for the wealthy land owners
    22. 22. • Women of wealthy families became even less important to the prosperity and status of a family • Wealthy women began the custom of foot binding • A women’s foot was bound very tightly so that it would not grow • This broke the women’s arch and curled every toe but the big toe • This was called a “lily-foot” it made the women crippled for the rest of her life • Small feet were considered admirable by the men • With bound feet, a women was entirely dependent on her husband • Peasant women however still continued to labor and earn food and income for their family
    23. 23. • The official state philosophy of china during and after the Song dynasty • A revival of Confucianism, but a more rational and practical variation of it • Zhu Xi, a philosopher during the Song dynasty, was a main developer of Neo Confucianism • The two main principle schools of thought were  The Lixue (school of principle)-represented by zhu Xi  The Xinxue (school of mind)-represented by Lu Xiangshan and Wang Yangming
    24. 24. • Movable Type -Invented in 1040 -An arrangement of individual characters into frames, which are then used again many times • Paper Money -Invented in the 1020’s -A paper currency which was started by the Song government to replace the old strings of metal cash used by the merchants
    25. 25. • Magnetic Compass -Invented in the 1100’s -Used for navigation -A magnetized needle which floated and always pointed north-south -Existed in China many centuries before sailors adapted it to use while they were at sea
    26. 26. The main goal of all emperors of past dynasties was to unite China and make it a big and powerful nation. Each emperor had to fight for their position as ruler of China. The emperors of past dynasties such as the Qin, Han, Tang and Song all contributed to the large and wealthy country China is today. China grew, prospered, and became very technologically advanced due to the emperors’ additions and amendments to the Chinese laws and culture.
    27. 27. Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Kreiger, Phillip C. Naylor , and Dahia Ibo Shabaka. World History: Patterns of Interaction. USA: Rand MacNally, 2003. (91-101) Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Kreiger, Phillip C. Naylor , and Dahia Ibo Shabaka. World History: Patterns of Interaction. USA: Rand MacNally, 2003. (181-187) Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Kreiger, Phillip C. Naylor , and Dahia Ibo Shabaka. World History: Patterns of Interaction. USA: Rand MacNally, 2003. (281-291) Confucius, Photograph. 11 Nov. 2008 <http://www.indiana.edu/~ealc100/ Group11/HOMEPAGE/confucius2.jpg> The Great Wall of China. Photogragh. 11 Nov. 2008 <http://www.activityvillage.co.uk/ the_great_wall_of_china_3.jpg> Han Dynasty. Map. 11 Nov. 2008 < http://homepages.stmartin.edu/Fac_Staff/rlangill/ HIS%20217%20maps/Han%20dynasty%20map.JPG> Hardy, Grant. "Song Dynasty." WorldBook. 18 Nov. 2008. 18 Nov 2008 <http://worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar519820&st=song+dynasty>. Kalton, Michael. "Neo-Confucianism." 14 nov 2008 <http://faculty.washington.edu/mkalton/NeoConfucianism.htm>.
    28. 28. "Neo-Confucianism." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2006. Answers.com 19 Nov. 2008. <http://www.answers.com/topic/neo-confucianism>. "Qin Dynasty." Dynasties of Early Imperial China. 9 Nov 2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/qin.htm Qin Dynasty. Map. 11 Nov. 2008 <http://homepages.stmartin.edu/Fac_Staff/rlangill/ HIS%20217%20maps/Qin%20dynasty%20map.JPG> Rosenberg, Matt. "The Great Wall of China." About.com. About.com. 11 Nov 2008 <http://geography.about.com/od/specificplacesofinterest/a/greatwall.htm>. Song Dynasty. Map. 11 Nov. 2008 <http://www.paulnoll.com/China/Dynasty/dynasty-Northern-Song.jpg> Tang Dynasty. Map. 11 Nov. 2008 <http://homepages.stmartin.edu/Fac_Staff/rlangill/ HIS%20217%20maps/tang%20dynasty%20map.JPG> Theobald, Ulrich. "Chinese History - Han Dynasty (206 BC-8 AD, 25-220) map and geography." Chinaknowledge . 2000. 11 Nov 2008 <http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Han/han-map.html>. Theobald, Ulrich. "Chinese History - Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) map and geography." Chinaknowledge . 2000. 11 Nov 2008 <http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Han/qin-map.html>.

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