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  1. 1. Using YouTube to Develop & Assess Pre-service Teachers’ Expertise in Instruction & to Help Develop Peer Networks – within an Online Course<br />Empire State College<br />Master of Arts in Teaching Program <br />Eileen O’Connor, Ph.D.<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />Background on the course & the needs of the course ; research questions <br />Findings from the YouTube pilot<br />Conclusions, improvements, and next steps – within teacher education<br />Some general findings for all instructors<br />
  3. 3. Course Particulars<br />Pre-service teachers who are learning to become science teachers; career changing adults <br />An associated course is face-to-face and allows these teachers to practice but<br />content-pedagogy experts are not always available<br />Purpose of YouTube pilot—to have students:<br />develop a microteaching that they share with peers & the instructor that can aid in their development as K12 teachers, that can serve as a course assessment , and that can encourage peer networks<br />
  4. 4. Course particulars: the nature of the course interactions<br />The online course itself is highly interactive and tech-enabled online course: <br />Second Life for meetings and discussions<br />Talk-aloud discussion boards for planning <br />Networking students in an expressed instructional objective <br />
  5. 5. Demographics: Career-changing adults <br />
  6. 6. Research questions<br />Can the use of readily-available video-recording and sharing applications, such as YouTube, provide more opportunities for pre-service teachers working in a largely online environment to practice teaching before they enter the classroom? How can having more opportunities for content-expert faculty review help these students grow as research-based science teachers? Can students in online courses develop more collegial relationships through YouTube sharing? <br />What areas appear as problematic when students self-created and posted these videos – from a technical perspective and from a presentation perspective?<br />How did the YouTube serve as an assessment tool within the course? How has the use of student-developed videos improved the course effectiveness?<br />What can be gathered from this study that could inform online courses in general? How self-videotaping and posting be used to improve future courses with pre-service teachers?<br />
  7. 7. You & your online students get to know each other<br />
  8. 8. Findings: students get to know each other <br />More personal interactions were apparent: <br />Peer help with creating and posting the YouTubes<br />Students discuss their presentation style<br />Do I look shifty eyes? <br />Students comment about themselves personally<br />Not happy with the beard  it was shaved<br />Personalities become apparent <br />From show-off-y to competent to quiet <br />
  9. 9. Findings: learning the technology<br />Some technology struggles in the beginning; but quickly overcome – issues at the beginning: <br />Uploading problems – timing out / too long <br />Embedding the right links <br />No Helpdesk – students helped each other <br />Initial handout from the instructor with some “basics” <br />The icebreaker to test the process was very helpful - and students enjoyed their presentations<br />
  10. 10. Ways students worked<br />Sophisticated video-editing was clearly stated as NOT being required; this was not per se a technology course<br />
  11. 11. View students’ actual work <br />
  12. 12. Findings: now you can analyze performance characteristics <br />Such as the style of teaching that was evident:<br />
  13. 13. Students were creative in displaying data & its use<br />
  14. 14. A “performance based” assessment<br />Brings in a vital aspect of instruction and review: <br />The process of creating the microteaching is instructive in-and-of itself<br />As evident in the scientific quality within the productions even without specific coaching on how & what to present<br />Kindly but pointed review<br />Mastery of many areas but still not student centered or interesting<br />More similar to actual classroom observations <br />The content-pedagogy instructor can now observe technique, technology integration, & aspects of comfort in front of an audience <br />Difficult qualities to assess in online environment<br />
  15. 15. Findings <br />Good science & tech . . . however: <br />Too much to an adult audience – their colleagues<br />Despite criteria, notes, rubrics, and comments<br />But improvement by the second microteaching<br />Too much “this is what you show know about science” and not enough engendering of the questions that science addresses<br />Too little evidence of why K12 students would be interested or engaged in the science<br />
  16. 16. Benefits <br />Good way for online instructors to get to know students – in an asynchronous manner<br />Easy to use: <br />The learning curve for the technology is small<br />Network students for peer support <br />Important communication skills that teachers need: <br />Good modeling for their own classroom; K12 students work well in this environment<br />
  17. 17. Value to the students<br />Practice with the technology and with the teaching; learning how to assemble materials needed, how to address the standards<br />Getting to know their peers better<br />Using 21st century skills <br />
  18. 18. Value in teacher prep <br />Practicing with assembly of all the materials and ideas needed when teaching:<br />Requires the integration of many areas: the science; the lessons; the technology; and the videotaping  goes beyond what is evident in a lesson plan<br />Provides practice in speaking and later critiquing <br />The natural concern about speaking with colleagues as evident in comments to the audience and introductions <br />Also, these students may soon have to do a demo lesson on a job interview<br />
  19. 19. Value to using YouTube, in general<br />
  20. 20. Lessons learned for teacher ed: more research & development needed <br />Very valuable techniques – show the good and the bad of teaching <br />As we were taught – but movement towards best practice<br />VERY difficult to change practice – we teach how we were taught <br />Requirements for improvement – in the outcomes and the instruction (the technology itself was mostly supportive) <br />A more realistic conception of pre-classroom teaching needs and how they are assessed must be developed<br />More YouTube models of best practice – they should be analyzed and discussed by students before they create their microteachings; more scaffolding and assignments on the student-centeredness aspects<br />Criteria & rubrics should better alignment with desired outcomes within the video format – need to highlight the new expectations<br />Address ways to bring in the unseen audience<br />Consider creating more specific peer review – anonymous, perhaps<br />
  21. 21. Pilot outcome<br />Very worthy – providing a whole new face for pre-service teacher education <br />Closer to the classroom – than written lesson plans; much better assessment of preparation for teaching<br />However, lack of “real” students may have skewed this towards a performance for other scientist<br />Performance-based assessment – heralds our adult students: good concrete experience <br />Need to bring the course itself into better alignment with this performance approach  areas in need of improvement were highlighted<br />
  22. 22. Notes to prospective implementers <br />Valuable way to assess performance but we need to improve the evaluation of live performances and not simply “papers”<br />Particularly useful in clinical programs and/or where performances are required <br />Model the techniques you want <br />Easier said then done<br />In teacher education, you need a new mental model of teaching; the YouTube gives evidence to the deeper thinking of students<br />The instructor will have students continue to use these videos in the fall semester’s course <br />

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