Ip Law Introduction In India


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IP law Introduction in India By Vijay Pal Dalmia, Advocate, Delhi High Court, Partner and Head IP & IT Laws Division, Vaish Associates Advocates India

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Ip Law Introduction In India

  2. 2. <ul><li>Comprises of the following Laws:- </li></ul><ul><li>Laws relating to Trade Marks / Brands (Trade Marks Act, 1999), Property Marks </li></ul><ul><li>Laws relating to Copyright (Copyright Act, 1957) Artistic Work, Literary Work, Audio Video Records and Software </li></ul><ul><li>Laws relating to Industrial Designs (Designs Act, 2000) </li></ul>INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. <ul><li>Laws relating to Patents (The Patent Act, 1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Laws relating to Geographical Indications. The geographical Indications of (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Laws relating to Internet, Web and Information Technology (Information Technology Act, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Names </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>INFRINGEMENT WHEN AN IPR IS REGISTERED i.e.Trade Mark , Patent Industrial Designs , Geographical </li></ul><ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul>INFRINGEMENT OF IPR AND LEGAL REMEDIES
  5. 5. <ul><li>Passing off is a common law tort which can be used to enforce unregistered trademark rights. Passing off essentially occurs where the reputation of party A is misappropriated by party B, such that party B misrepresents this reputation and damages the goodwill of party A. </li></ul><ul><li>The law of passing off prevents one person from misrepresenting his or her goods or services as being the goods and services of the plaintiff, and also prevents one person from holding out his or her goods or services as having some association or connection with the plaintiff when this is not true. </li></ul>PASSING OFF
  6. 6. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REMEDIES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>LEGAL REMEDIES AGAINST INFRINGEMENT AND PASSING OFF CIVIL CRIMINAL
  7. 7. <ul><li>NO In case of </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Mark </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Yes For </li></ul><ul><li>Patents </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Indications </li></ul>IS REGISTRATION OF IPR NECESSARY?
  8. 8. <ul><li>COPYRIGHT: - </li></ul><ul><li>Registration of Copyright w.r.t any logo / trade mark is not necessary or compulsory under the provisions of the Indian Copyright Act, 1957. Automatic protection is available to an artistic work, form the date when the artistic work / logo was designed. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Comes in to existence when the concept in mind is put in to some tangible form or crated </li></ul>HOW COPYRIGHT COMES IN TO EXISTENCE !
  9. 9. <ul><li>A trade mark is granted protection on the basis of </li></ul><ul><li>First Adoption </li></ul><ul><li>First User </li></ul><ul><li>First Inventor </li></ul><ul><li>First Invention / Adoption/ User is superior then the Registration </li></ul>TRADE MARK ! WHO IS PROTECTED ?
  10. 10. <ul><li>Monopoly for the specified period is created in favour of the Registrant </li></ul><ul><li>In case of litigation onus of proof shifts on the opposite party </li></ul><ul><li>Prima facie presumption is raised in favour of the Registrant </li></ul>WHAT ARE THE RIGHTS CONFERRED BY THE REGISTRATION OF IPR ?
  11. 11. <ul><li>Yes, in case the registration has been obtained by </li></ul><ul><li>Fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Misrepresentation </li></ul><ul><li>Wrongly </li></ul><ul><li>Against the rights of some other party / opponent </li></ul><ul><li>Registered by the Registrar erroneously </li></ul><ul><li>Registration prohibited under some law </li></ul><ul><li>Registration is against public policy or morals </li></ul>CAN THE REGISTRATION OF IPR BE CANCELLED OR REVOKED ?
  12. 12. <ul><li>During the Process of Registration – By filing Opposition </li></ul><ul><li>After Registration – By filing Rectification Petition </li></ul>WHEN REGISTRATION CAN BE OPPOSED OR REVOKED/CANCELLED ?
  13. 13. <ul><li>There are two ways to compare similarities between two trade marks :- </li></ul><ul><li>PHONETIC Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>OCULAR Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Other tests for comparison are :- </li></ul>WHAT IS THE TEST OF COMPARISON IN CASE OF VIOLATION OF IPR ?
  14. 14. <ul><li>Likely hood of confusion and deception </li></ul><ul><li>From the angle of a prudent person of ordinary intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>No microscopic comparison </li></ul><ul><li>No actual confusion or deception is required </li></ul><ul><li>Actual loss or damage not necessary </li></ul>OTHER TESTS OF COMPARISON
  15. 15. <ul><li>Injunction/stay </li></ul><ul><li>Damages </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts and handing over of profits </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment of local commissioner by the court for custody/sealing of infringing material/accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Interim Injunction: </li></ul><ul><li>Ex-Parte </li></ul><ul><li>After Hearing </li></ul>CIVIL REMEDIES
  16. 16. <ul><li>Filing of plaint with supporting evidence at the time of filing of the suit </li></ul><ul><li>Filing of application under Order 39 Rule 1 & 2 read with sec. 151 of the Code of Civil Procedure, for grant of ex-parte ad-interim; </li></ul><ul><li>Filing of application under Order 26 of the Code of Civil Procedure for appointment of a local commissioner, to make inventory and/or to take possession of the infringing material form the premises of the defendants, their agents, retailers and distributors etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing of arguments by court on application for grant of ex-parte injunction and appointment of local commissioner; </li></ul><ul><li>The court may, if satisfied, grant ex-parte and interim injunction and appoint a local commissioner. </li></ul>PROCEDURE & PROCESS FOR A CIVIL CASE
  17. 17. <ul><li>Judgment by the court. </li></ul><ul><li>The court may give a short notice to the defendants for giving them an opportunity of hearing before granting any temporary injunction or appointing a local commissioners </li></ul><ul><li>Service of notice/summons of the court on the defendant </li></ul><ul><li>Filing of written statement / reply by the defendant; </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing on application for grant of interim injunction; </li></ul><ul><li>Further proceedings in the suit including filing of replication/rejoinder, admission/denial of documents, framing of issues; </li></ul><ul><li>Trial </li></ul>ELSE
  18. 18. <ul><li>Trade Marks Act, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Act, 1957 </li></ul><ul><li>Designs Act, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Patents Act, 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Indications of Goods( Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Relief Act, 1963 </li></ul>STATUTORY PROVISIONS
  19. 19. <ul><li>Filing of criminal complaint before the chief judicial magistrate/chief metropolitan magistrate of the concerned jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Leading evidence w.r.t. the infringement of the trade mark </li></ul><ul><li>Filing of application under sec. 91/93 of the Code of Criminal Procedure for issue of search and seizure warrants </li></ul><ul><li>Orders/directions by the Court to police for the search and seizure of infringing material. </li></ul><ul><li>OR IN ALTERNATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Direction by the court to police for investigation, lodging of an FIR and search and seizure, under sec. 156 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. </li></ul><ul><li>OR IN ALTERNATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Filing a Complaint / FIR with Police </li></ul>CRIMINAL REMEDIES
  20. 20. <ul><li>Sec. 103/104 of the Trade Marks Act, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 63 and 64 of the Copyright Act, 1957 </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 39 of the Geographical Indication of Goods Act, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 420 of the India Penal Code </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 91/93 of the Code of Criminal Procedure </li></ul>STATUES INVOKED FOR CRIMINAL ACTION
  21. 21. <ul><li>In India, the jurisdiction for the purposes of filing a civil suit, will depend upon following facts, and subject to the following conditions:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the cause of action has accrued; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the part of the cause of action has accrued; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the properties / violations are taking place; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the defendants reside or work for gain; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In brief, the jurisdiction for the purposes of filing a case would depend upon the place of business of the defendants. </li></ul></ul>IN WHICH COURT A CIVIL CASE CAN BE FILED AGAINST VIOLATION OF IPR ?
  22. 22. <ul><li>In India a suit may be instituted in any Court of original jurisdiction, subject to its pecuniary & territorial jurisdiction. The designation of the lowest court is “District & Sessions Judge”. Such cases can also be directly filed in the High Court, if such High Court is vested with original jurisdiction, e.g. Delhi High Court. </li></ul><ul><li>The Jurisdiction of High Court could be invoked, subject to the payment of Court fees. The structure of Court fees vary from state to state. </li></ul>COMPETENT COURT FOR CIVIL ACTION
  23. 23. <ul><li>Yes, if the artwork, get up, design, color combination of a trade mark/ label/ packing material is similar and / or deceptively similar, the provisions of the Copyright Act, 1957, can also be invoked along with the Trade Marks Act, 1959, and this course of action is always preferable, as under the provisions of the Copyright Act, 1957, the offence becomes COGINIZABLE, and police can, on its own directly initiate Criminal proceedings after registration of an FIR. </li></ul>CAN LEGAL ACTION UNDER THE TRADE MARKS ACT, 1999 AND THE COPYRIGHT ACT, 1957 , BE COMBINED ?
  24. 24. <ul><li>Criminal Complaint in the Court of competent jurisdiction; </li></ul><ul><li>Pre summoning Evidence, for satisfying the court on the basis of the evidence placed on record, that the </li></ul><ul><li>allegations by complainant are prima facie maintainable; </li></ul><ul><li>Issue of General/ specific Search and Seizure Warrants, along with directions to police; </li></ul>PROCEDURE FOR FILING A CRIMINAL COMPLAINT
  25. 25. <ul><li>Raid / Search & Seizure by Police </li></ul><ul><li>Investigation and arrest (if necessary) of accused persons; </li></ul><ul><li>Arguments; </li></ul><ul><li>Summons / Warrants against accused persons; </li></ul><ul><li>Accused Appear and seek bail; </li></ul><ul><li>Framing of charges, after notice of allegations; </li></ul><ul><li>Trial </li></ul><ul><li>Onus of proof is on the complainant </li></ul>
  26. 26. Flat No 903, Indra Prakash, 21, Barakhamba  Road, New Delhi 110001 (India) Phone: +91 11 42492532 (Direct) Phone: +91 11 42492525 Ext 532 Mobile :- 9810081079 Fax: +91 11 23320484 email:- [email_address] Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws Division