ASBESTOS Intro1 • Asbestos ( /æsˈb ɛstəs/ or /æzˈb ɛstəs/; from Greek ἄσβεστος, "unquenchable" or "inextinguishable") is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals used commercially for their desirable physical properties • They all have in common their eponymous, asbestiform habit, long, (1:20) thin fibrous crystals
Asbestos in Nature intro2 Fibrous In-organic natural mineral found in abundance in the earth O2 Silica Mined for centuries Deposits around the H worldOccurs in fire , primary and metamorphic rocks Mg FeVaries in chemical and physical characteristics Na,
Asbestos ….. in buildings!? intro3Building materials are presumed to contain asbestos if installed before 1980, unless testing has proven otherwise
TYPES OF ASBESTOS11-Chrysotile, white asbestos- OH O Si MgMember of Serpentine Group : Fibers are usually curly bundled and twisted95% of world’s asbestos.Hydrophilic ; can absorb water thus wetted to minimize fiber release.Most flexible of all asbestos fibres and Less hazardousWithstand the fiercest heatSoft and flexible; spun and woven as easily as cotton.Resistance to alkaline attack ; reinforcing material in asbestos-cement building products.Banned in UK 1999.Absorbs organic materials such as resins and polymersUsed to strengthen particulates such as cement. -
TYPES OF ASBESTOS22-Amosite, brown asbestos- OH O Si FeMember of the Amphibole group. Amosite is usually mined in South Africa.Used in automobile industry clutch – brake padsHarsh, spiky fibres have good tensile strength and resistance to heat.In buildings, amosite was used for anti-condensation and acoustic purposes.On structural steel, it was used for fire protection.Between the 1920s and the late 1960s amosite was used in preformed thermal insulation, pipes,slabs and moulded pipe fitting covers. In the UK amosite was also used widely in the manufacture of insulation boards. The import ofamosite was banned as of 1 January 1986 by The Asbestos (Prohibitions) Regulations 1985
TYPES OF ASBESTOS33- Crocidolite, blue asbestos- OH O Si Fe Fe NaNeedlelike fibres straight and brittle 5 – 6 % of world’s asbestos.Member of the Amphibole group.The needle like fibres are strongestHigh resistance to acids.Use in yarn and rope lagging from 1880s-1960sThermal insulation 1920s-1950s.High bulk volumeSprayed insulation; a product frst manufacturedin USA in 1931 Most lethalStrict guidelines since 1969.The "import, supply and use of crude, fibre,flake, powder or waste was banned afterAsbestos (Prohibitions) Regulations of 1985
Friable Vs. Non-Friable Asbestos1Friable asbestosCrumbled, pulverizedor powdered by handpressure.If friable ACMasbestos-containingmaterial is damaged ordisturbed, it presents inhalationrisk. Asbestos fibres aremore easily releasedinto the air.Sprayed fireproofingon structuralsteelwork, or thermalinsulation on pipes.
Friable Vs Non-Friable Asbestos2Non- Friable asbestos Asbestos fibres are bound or locked into the product matrix Fibres are not readily released. Risk for fibre release only when it is subject to significant abrasion through activities such as sanding or cutting with electric power tools. Vinyl asbestos floor tiles, acoustic ceiling tiles, and asbestos cement products.
Asbestos around the worldAsbestos is produced in 25 countries mainly Canada AustraliaSouth Africa Eastern Europe Countries,China and Japan
Rise and Fall of Asbestos1 Asbestos Production 1950 70s 1960 1970 50s 60s
Rise and Fall of Asbestos26543 3 million tons 5 million tons210 1970s 1990s
Uses of Asbestos11. Thermal System Insulation : to prevent heat loss/transfer in pipes, boilers, chilled water condensation tanks, heat exchangers, HVAC’s, process equipment, etc.2. Surfacing Materials : sprayed or troweled on surfaces such as walls and ceilings for acoustical or decorative purposes, fireproofing, textured purposes, textured plastics, etc.3. Miscellaneous Materials : non-friable materials such as cement products, roofing, floor tiles, outdoor siding, gaskets, and fabrics, brake linings
Uses of Asbestos2 Mixing with other material such • as cement increases durability and strength • Was used in cooking hardware • High resistance to flames • Can be moulded to any shape or • form according to consumer needs 3000 uses for asbestos •
Uses of Asbestos3 Asbesto conc ranges from •Tiles 1%-100% in commercial material Asbestos is used in • buildings , roofs, insulation units piping netoworksand ventilation systems Asbestos cement • crayons
Uses of Asbestos4 Asbestos tile Fire proof doorbrakes
Uses of Asbestos5 Lavatory unit - Roof made of white asbestos Heating unit made of white and brown asbestos at ratio of - roof made of brown asbestos -Roof made of white asbestos viinyl floor with bitumen sealant with 1-5% white asbestos
Asbestos Hazards1Asbestos waste is highly hazardous .Hazardous characteristics are due to type of metals and physical properties of the asbestos fibresHealth effects increase factors : exposure timing – length of fibers – number of fibres – strenght of fibers
Asbestos Hazards2 Asbestos diseases are more prone to workers on-site and can cause death at higher rate than any other WORK RELATED ILLNESS USEPA classifies asbestos as HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT HAP Strict enforcement measures against asbestos removal and disposal works by USEPA and ILO 15-60 years for first symptoms to develop If inhaled ONCE asbestos fibres will cause asbestosis
Exposure1 US Federal Government Agency Recommendations on Exposure Limits• On July 12, 1989, EPA established a ban on new uses of asbestos• NIOSH has recommended that 0.1 Fiber/cubic centimeter (fiber >5µm long) /400 liter is carcinogen.
Exposure2 1-Air Inhalation at home or workplace workplace air environment 0.5 fiber/cm3 Asbestos is classified as carcinogenic by WHO
Exposure 3 2-Water WHO studies have not shown link between cancer and swallowing Debate if asbestos fibers present in potable water Does / Does Not present hazard
Exposure 4Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs)No exposure limitin homes andoffices
Exposure 5Time-Weighted Average (TWA)0.1 of asbestos fibers/1 cm3 of air in 8hours of exposureShort term Excursion Limit0.10.1 of asbestos fibers/1 cm3 of air in30 minutes average of exposure
Exposure 6• Miners of asbestos• Shipyard workers• Power plant workers• Brake lining workers• Pipe fitters• Insulators• Boiler makers and repairers• Maintenance workers• Workers in the production of fire bricks, fire-retardants paints, asbestos cement, and other asbestos-containing products
Exposure7• Fibers come from naturally occurring sources of asbestos• Wearing down or distance of manufactured products including insulation, automotive brakes and clutches, ceiling and floor tiles, dry wall, roof shingles and cement
Asbestos Diseases 2 Asbestosis• Scarring of lung tissue reducing ability to take oxygen.• Dose related disease ;repeated regular exposures.• Debilitating disease and can be fatal.• Latency period 10-20 years
Asbestos Diseases 3 Lung Cancer• Asbestos fibers are breathed in, and trapped in lungs.• Levels of fibers in lung tissue build up over time• Cause lung cancer after years of exposure.• Lung cancer is usually fatal.• Latency period 20 years
Asbestos Diseases 4 Mesothelioma• Rare but deadliest• Cancer of pleural lining of lung/peritoneal lining of chest cavity.• Not dose related• Even single exposure may cause disease.• Even people who have only indirect contact with asbestos get it,• Also called “bystander’s” disease.• Latency period 20 to 30years .
Asbestos Diseases 5 Medicine ?!• No cure for Asbestos related diseases• Is there a safe exposure?• No exposure to asbestos is a ”safe exposure”.• Something that can neither be seen, smelled, felt and long time later that can kill you is something to think about seriously.• Be SAFE. Be PROTECTED• Create Asbestos free environment.
Asbestos Ban1Protocol No. 162 , 1986 in ILO’s 92ndBan of asbestos in any shape or formResolution concerning Asbestos ILO GeneralConference 2006Asbestos including chrysotile, are classified asknown human carcinogens by the InternationalAgency for Research on Cancer
Asbestos Ban4• Asbestos phase-out• Other eco-friendly alternative material such as Rockwool or recycled sludges• Still used in India and China
Asbestos Regulatory agenciesOSHA Occupational Safety &Health AssociationUSEPA United StatesEnvironmental ProtectionAgencyILO International LaborOrganization
Arab Countries• Banned my most Arab countries• Phase-out plans• Surveys and studies• Ministries of Environment
US International Programme for Chemical Safety100, 000 workers die yearly by exposure to asbestos,Workers face serious risks from asbestos exposure ; AsbestosRemoval, demolition, building maintenance, ship breaking and wastehandling activities,Three decades of efforts and alternatives for a ban on manufactureand use of asbestos and asbestos-containing productsObjective of Promotional Framework for Occupational safety andhealth Convention 2006 is to prevent occupational injuries, diseasesand deaths.
Asbestos Removal 1• Environmental criteria in specs of demolition contracts• Providing technical requirements to construction contractors after progress of works• Deficiencies on-site
Asbestos Removal 2 DetectionPOLARIZED LIGHT MICROSCOPYUSEPA 40 CFR part 763, Subpart E, Appendix Afor sampling and analyzing air samples-transmission ElectronMicroscopy (TEM) 29 CFR 1910.1001, AppendixA & B: OSHA Reference method for sampling andanalyzing air samplesUSEPA 40 CFR part 763, Subpart E, Appendix Efor bulk samples- method-1: Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) USEPA 40CFR part 763, Subpart E, Appendix E for bulksamples- method-2: X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) 29 CFR1910.1001, Appendix J (method ID-191): OSHAReference method for sampling and analyzing bulksamples
Asbestos Removal 3Asbestos disposalrequirements for activeand inactive disposalsites under NESHAPs(40 CFR Part61, subpart M)
• The demolition work of Asbestos Containing Material (ACM ) is a very specialized task• Experience in handling hazardous ACM• Many contractors have no experience in handling Asbestos and have not completed similar projects .
Basic Requirements Asbestos Removal Works 1– Area barricading –– Concrete barrier, warning tapes and warning signs– Tarpaulin or plastic material woven sheet upto height of building to be demolished.
Basic Requirements Asbestos Removal Works 2PPE Personal Protective EquipmentRespirator Masks –Workers should use air supplied breathing masks only.Workers should not use reusable or disposal respirators.
Basic Requirements Asbestos Removal Works 3Special Safety Signage
Basic Requirements Asbestos Removal Works 4Training
Basic Requirements Asbestos Removal Works 5Wetting of ACM – Contractor should wet allfriable ACM
Basic Requirements Asbestos Removal Works 6Packaging of ACMProper packaging ,sealing and encapsulation of friable ACM.
Basic Requirements Asbestos Removal Works 7Handy Tools.
Transport of Asbestos ASBESTOS WASTE TRANSPORTSpecial sealed trucks designed andequipped and licensed for safe transfer ofasbestos
Disposal• Detailed engineering design drawings for asbestos site landfill• Reference to USEPA guidelines related to asbestos disposal requirements for active and inactive disposal sites under NESHAPs (40 CFR Part 61, subpart M) and specifies general requirements for solid waste disposal under RCRA (40 CFR Part 257).• Advance EPA notification of the intended disposal site is required by NESHAP.• Methodology submitted by contractors should meet required standards set by USEPA for asbestos demolition,removal,transport,handling,landfilling
General Concerns• Concerns about asbestos removal or dumping activities• Implementing governmental circular instructions• Asbestos phase-out plans• Safe removal and disposal of asbestos material by qualified licensed contractors with hi-level of expertise and professionalism• Apply high engineering standards when dealing with asbestos
Special ConcernsDestruction of infrastructure release of asbestos.Bombs/missiles asbestos fibers are freed/inhaled with dust.Apartment and office buildings in Lebanon use asbestos for heat insulation.Most buildings erected or restored post-warWestern companies have been forced to pay tens of billions of dollars to ex-employees who worked with asbestos.EIA by MOE
Study on incidence of pleural mesothelioma and its relationship with the occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos in Chekka region1991-2000, 22 cases of malignantmesothelioma were diagnosed at Hôtel-Dieude France Hospital.The relationship between pleuralmesothelioma and a construciton companywith the related occupational andenvironmental risk in Chekka region isobvious.The assessment of the incidence needs anational cancer registry.Despite the protective measures taken by thegovernment since 1996, an increase in theincidence is suspected in the coming tenyears because of the long latency period ofthe disease.
Results• Fifteen among these 18 patients (83%) had a positive exposure history• Occupational exposure in 11 cases• Bystander exposure in 4 cases.• The tumor was attributable to Company X in 12 cases among the exposed 15 (80%).• Mean latency period between exposition and diagnosis was 29 years.• 15 patients died from the progression of their disease after a median survival of 8 months.
2520151050 Statistics are from, 2001 Asbestos Study by Kattan J, Faraj H, Ghosn M, Chahine G, Assaf E, Abadjian G, Khoury F.
Asbestos Deaths•Malcolm McLaren, former manager of New YorkDolls and Sex Pistols, died on 8 April 2010.•Billy Vaughn, American bandleader, died in 1991. •US Congressman Bruce Vento died of mesothelioma in 2000..•Hamilton Jordan, Chief of Staff for U.S. President •Rock and roll musician and songwriter Warren Zevon,Jimmy Carter and lifelong cancer activist, died in after a long period of untreated illness and pain, was2008. diagnosed with inoperable mesothelioma in the fall of•Richard J. Herrnstein, psychologist and co-author 2002. died in 2003.of The Bell Curve, died in 1994. •Christie Hennessy, the influential Irish singer-songwriter,•Australian anti-racism activist Bob Bellear died in died of mesothelioma in 2007, •Bob Miner, one of the founders of Software2005. Development Labs, the forerunner of Oracle Corporation,•British science fiction writer Michael G. Coney, died of mesothelioma in 1994.responsible for nearly 100 works, also died in •Scottish Labour MP John William MacDougall died of2005. mesothelioma on August 13, 2008, after fighting the•American film and television actor Paul Gleason, disease for two years.perhaps best known for his portrayal of Principal •Australian journalist and news presenter Peter Leonard of Canberra succumbed to the condition on SeptemberRichard Vernon in the 1985 film The Breakfast 23, 2008.Club, died in 2006. •Terrence McCann, Olympic gold medalist and longtime•Mickie Most, an English record producer, died of Executive Director of Toastmasters, died ofmesothelioma in 2003. mesothelioma on June 7, 2006, at his home in Dana•Paul Rudolph, American architect, died in 1997. Point, California.•Bernie Banton, an Australian workers rights •Merlin Olsen, Pro Football Hall of Famer and television actor, died on March 10, 2010, from mesothelioma thatactivist, had been diagnosed in 2009.•Actor Steve McQueen was diagnosed withperitoneal mesothelioma on December 22, 1979.
• PUBLIC AWARENESS• Special study to survey ACM• Professional contractors with qualifications,experience• Skilled ,trained and equipped personnel• High HSE standards• Error will result in release of airborne carcinogenic asbestos fibres• Set of rules/regulations• Procedures for all types of asbestos works• Contractor qualification requirements .• Written and approved Scope Of Work for asbestos demolition (even for 1 m2)