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Mapping Environmental Injustice<br />Christoph Plutzar<br />Summer School onEnvironmental Conflicts and Justice<br />Barce...
Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 2<br />Mapping Env...
Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 3<br />Overview<br...
Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 4<br />Spatialdata...
Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 5<br />Spatialdata...
Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 6<br />Spatialdata...
Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 7<br />Spatialdata...
Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 8<br />Geographic ...
manage
integrate
edit
analyse
display</li></ul>dataandinformationen,<br />thathave a relationshiptotheEarthssurface<br />
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)<br />Geography<br />Computer sciences<br />Geodesy<br />Mathematics<br />GIS<br />Car...
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barce...
Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 11<br />Geographic...
1969 Ian McHarg: „Design with Nature“
1986 Peter Burrough: „PrinciplesofGeographic Information Systems for Land Resources Assessment“
1987 International Journal ofGeographical Information Systems
1991 Maguire, Goodchild, Rhind: „Geographical Information Systems: PrinciplesandApplication“</li></li></ul><li>Christoph P...
Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 13<br />Mapping ex...
Points variable sizeElectricityproduction<br />renewablesources<br />conventionalsources (fossil & nuclear) <br />Christop...
Points, lines, areaThe truncated South<br />80% oftheworld GDP<br />Stock exchangevalue: 98% in the North<br />Important c...
Lines andarrowsOil in Africa<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 201...
BarsMultiplicationofeconomic power<br />Multiplicationofeconomic power per capitabetween 1820 and 1998<br />More thantenti...
PiesandarrowsGlobal tradeflows<br />within a region<br />betweenregions<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environm...
DistortedareasEconomicperformance<br />Total GDPdisplayedbyarea<br />GDP / capitadisplayedbycolour<br />Total GDPdisplayed...
DistortedareasCO2emmisions<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011|...
Rich andpoor<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| ...
AreasRich andpoor<br />Human Development Index<br />Gini-Coeffizient<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environment...
Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production<br />	Human appropriationof NPP (HANPP) measureschanges in yearlybiomassflow...
Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production<br />NPP0<br />NPPact<br />NPPt<br />NPP remaining after harvest<br />Produc...
‚Pressure‘ indicator
Human dominationofecosystems</li></ul>Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona...
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Mapping Environmental Injustice.

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Wednesday 6/7/2011 Christoph Plutzar (SEC-IFF). Mapping Environmental Injustice.

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Mapping Environmental Injustice.

  1. 1. Mapping Environmental Injustice<br />Christoph Plutzar<br />Summer School onEnvironmental Conflicts and Justice<br />Barcelona 2011<br />
  2. 2. Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 2<br />Mapping Environmental Injustice<br />Connectedto EJOLT<br />Noresults so far …<br />Emphasis on mapping<br />
  3. 3. Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 3<br />Overview<br />The specialaboutspatial- spatialdata- geographicinformationsystems<br />Mapping - whatis a map?- examples<br />Scientific application: Embodied Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production- HANPP- global mapofeHANPP<br />
  4. 4. Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 4<br />Spatialdata<br />First Law ofGeography:„all thingsarerelated, but nearbythingsaremorerelatedthandistantthings“(Tobler, 1970)<br />-> spatialautocorrelationa geographicworldwithoutthislawwouldbeimpossibletolearnaboutordescribe, sinceeverypointwouldbeindependentof ist most immediate surroundings(Goodchild, 2008)<br />
  5. 5. Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 5<br />Spatialdata<br />Second endemicpropertyofgeographicinformation:spatialheterogeneity(Anselin, 1989)<br />TendencyforpropertiestovaryfromoneareatoanotheroverEarth‘ssurface<br />-> distributionofobjects<br />-> spatialpattern<br />
  6. 6. Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 6<br />Spatialdata<br />Spatial (geographical) datahave a spatialkeythatisbased on two(three) continuousdimensions, describingthegeographicallocation on thecurvedsurfaceofthe Earth.<br />non spatialdata: „what?“<br />spatialdata: additionally „where?“-> geoinformation + attributes<br />Spatialdataareuniqueandtheirproblemscannotthereforebesubsumedundersome larger field (Goodchild, 1992)<br />
  7. 7. Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 7<br />Spatialdata<br />Thereare (at least) twoviewstoconstitutemodelsofthe „real geographicalworld“ (Haining 2009):<br />The fieldviewconceptualizesspaceascoveredbysurfaceswiththeattributevaryingcontinuouslyacrossthespace.<br />The objectviewconceptualizesspaceaspopulatedby well-definedindivisibleobjects, aspoints, linesorpolygons. <br />
  8. 8. Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 8<br />Geographic Information Systems (GIS)<br />Computer systemto<br /><ul><li>collect
  9. 9. manage
  10. 10. integrate
  11. 11. edit
  12. 12. analyse
  13. 13. display</li></ul>dataandinformationen,<br />thathave a relationshiptotheEarthssurface<br />
  14. 14. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)<br />Geography<br />Computer sciences<br />Geodesy<br />Mathematics<br />GIS<br />Cartography<br />Statistics<br />Remote sensing<br />Applied sciences:<br />Regional planning, logistics, environmentalsciences, marketresearch, socialsciences, … <br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 9<br />
  15. 15. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 10<br />
  16. 16. Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 11<br />Geographic Information Systems (GIS)<br /><ul><li>1927 Alfred Hettner: „Die Geographie. Ihre Geschichte, ihr Wesen und ihre Methoden“layerconceptofindependentlevelsofdata & information
  17. 17. 1969 Ian McHarg: „Design with Nature“
  18. 18. 1986 Peter Burrough: „PrinciplesofGeographic Information Systems for Land Resources Assessment“
  19. 19. 1987 International Journal ofGeographical Information Systems
  20. 20. 1991 Maguire, Goodchild, Rhind: „Geographical Information Systems: PrinciplesandApplication“</li></li></ul><li>Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 12<br />Mapping<br />A map is a visual representation of an area - a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, regions, and themes.<br />Two dimensional geometricallyaccuraterepresentationoftheEarthssurface.<br />But also mayrepresentotherspaces (moon, solar system, brain, …), bedynamicorinteractiveoreventhree-dimensional.<br />
  21. 21. Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 13<br />Mapping examples<br />Examplestakenfrom<br />Le Monde Diplomatique „Atlas der Globalisierung“<br />Mapsarenot simple GIS maps but developedby a teamofspecialisedcartographers<br />Most mapshave an economictopicthatiscloselylinkedto environmental injustice<br />Examplesshowthepossibilitiesand power ofvisualisationprovidedbymaps<br />
  22. 22. Points variable sizeElectricityproduction<br />renewablesources<br />conventionalsources (fossil & nuclear) <br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 14<br />
  23. 23. Points, lines, areaThe truncated South<br />80% oftheworld GDP<br />Stock exchangevalue: 98% in the North<br />Important cash flows: > 80% in the North<br />Travel destinations > 82%<br />Air portswith > 20 Mio. passengers/ year<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 15<br />
  24. 24. Lines andarrowsOil in Africa<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 16<br />
  25. 25. BarsMultiplicationofeconomic power<br />Multiplicationofeconomic power per capitabetween 1820 and 1998<br />More thantentimes<br />Lessthantentimes<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 17<br />
  26. 26. PiesandarrowsGlobal tradeflows<br />within a region<br />betweenregions<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 18<br />
  27. 27. DistortedareasEconomicperformance<br />Total GDPdisplayedbyarea<br />GDP / capitadisplayedbycolour<br />Total GDPdisplayedbyarea<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 19<br />
  28. 28. DistortedareasCO2emmisions<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 20<br />
  29. 29. Rich andpoor<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 21<br />
  30. 30. AreasRich andpoor<br />Human Development Index<br />Gini-Coeffizient<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 22<br />
  31. 31. Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production<br /> Human appropriationof NPP (HANPP) measureschanges in yearlybiomassflows in ecosystemsresultingfromlanduse<br />Resources gained<br />Human-modifiedlandscape<br />Change induced <br />Society<br />Natural ecosystem<br />Work / energy invested<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 23<br />
  32. 32. Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production<br />NPP0<br />NPPact<br />NPPt<br />NPP remaining after harvest<br />Productivity of potential vegetation<br />(hypothetical vegetation assumed to prevail in the absence of land use; e.g., forests, grasslands, savannahs, deserts, shrubs, etc.<br />Productivity of actual vegetation<br />(including croplands, grasslands, built-up area, etc.<br />Energy remaining in the ecosystem after harvest<br />Potential vegetation<br />Actual vegetation<br />Productivity change<br />(∆NPPLC)<br />Harvest (NPPh)<br />HANPP<br /><ul><li>Indicatorof land-useintensity
  33. 33. ‚Pressure‘ indicator
  34. 34. Human dominationofecosystems</li></ul>Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 24<br />
  35. 35. Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 25<br />Aggregate global HANPP (year 2000)<br />Aboveground HANPP in 2000:28.8%<br />
  36. 36. “Metaphysics” of HANPP<br />TIME<br />renewablesource<br />ENERGYe.g. biofuels<br />MATTERe.g. timber<br />Einstein:<br />space-time<br />e = mc2<br />SPACE<br />landarea<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 26<br />
  37. 37. Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 27<br />Mapping global HANPP 2000<br />Aggregate HANPP (NPPLC plus harvest)<br />Haberl et al., 2007<br />
  38. 38. Embodied HANPP:Mapping the spatial disconnect between global biomass production and consumption (Erb et al. 2009)<br />The rapid growthofthevolumeofthebiomasstraderesults in a surgingspatialdisconnectbetweentheplaceswhereenvironmental impactsrelatedtobiomassproductionoccur, andtheplaceswherebiomassisbeingconsumed.<br />Embodied HANPP allowstoattributetoeachproducttheamountof HANPP resultingfromitsproduction.<br />Comparisonof HANPP production (Haberl et al 2007) with a mapofconsumptionofembodied HANPP.<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 28<br />
  39. 39. Embodied HANPP:Mapping the spatial disconnect between global biomass production and consumption (Erb et al. 2009)<br />Step 1: calculationofthe national consumptionofbiomass:= domesticextraction + biomassimports – exportsofbiomass-derivedproducts<br />Step 2: allocationof national consumptionusing a populationdensitymap<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 29<br />
  40. 40. Embodied HANPP:Mapping the spatial disconnect between global biomass production and consumption (Erb et al. 2009)<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 30<br />
  41. 41. Embodied HANPP:Mapping the spatial disconnect between global biomass production and consumption (Erb et al. 2009)<br />„sources“ and „sinks“ ofbiomassflows<br />costs ↔ benefits<br />ecologicaldistributionconflict<br />variationwithin countries<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 31<br />
  42. 42. Embodied HANPP:Mapping the spatial disconnect between global biomass production and consumption (Erb et al. 2009)<br />variationbetween countries<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 32<br />
  43. 43. References<br />Anselin, L. (1989): What is Special about Spatial Data? Alternative Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis. Santa Barbara, CA, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis Technical Paper, 89-4.<br />Erb, K.-H., Krausmann, F. Lucht, W. & Haberl, H. (2009): Embodied HANPP: Mapping the spatial disconnect between global biomass production and consumption. Ecological Economics 69: 328-334.<br />Goodchild, M.F. (1992): Geographical information science. Int. J. Geographical Information Systems, 6: 31-45.<br />Goodchild, M.F. (2008): Geographic Information Science: The Grand Challenges. In: Wilson, J.P. & Fotheringham, A.S. (eds.): The Handbook of Geographic Information Science. Blackwell.<br />Haberl, H., Erb, K.-H., Krausmann, F., Gaube, V., Bondeau, A., Plutzar, C., Gingrich, S., Lucht, W., Fischer-Kowalski, M. (2007): Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in earth's terrestrial ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104, 12942–12947.<br />Haining, R. (2009): The Special Nature of Spatial Data. In: Fotheringham, A.S. & Rogerson, P.A.: The SAGE Handbook of Spatial Analysis. SAGE Publications Ltd.<br />Le Monde Diplomatique (2007, 2009): Atlas der Globalisierung.<br />Tobler, W.R. (1970): A computer movie: Simulation of population change in the Detroit region. Economic Geography 46: 234-240.<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 33<br />
  44. 44. THANK YOUFOR YOURATTENTION<br />Christoph Plutzar | Summer School on Environmental Conflicts and Justice - Barcelona 2011| July 5 2011| 34<br />

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