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Urbanizing the water supply of Barcelona and Madrid through the 20th and 21st centuries From the local to the global Hug M...
THE MULTIPLE MEANINGS OF WATER Water as life, human right, commons Water as a sacred and cultural flow Water as power and ...
<ul><li>“ Aguas de Barcelona: Una apuesta por el petróleo del siglo XXI” [Aguas de Barcelona: a good bet for the oil of th...
“ El Canal de Isabel II retoma su plan para sacar a bolsa el 49% del capital” [The Canal de Isabel II retakes its plan to ...
Changing choreographies of power Neoliberalization of environmental governance Capital flows through the hydrosocial cycle...
KEY CONCEPT: URBANIZATION <ul><li>Urbanization  as “a process by which new and more complex relationships of society and n...
<ul><li>Ecological projects are always socio-political projects, and viceversa (Harvey 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>“ to trace ...
<ul><li>“ If we were to capture some of the metabolized flows that weave together the urban fabric and excavate the networ...
<ul><li>Neoliberalism : a paradigm that seeks to naturalize the market as a mean for assessing and distributing life’s nec...
(TYPICAL) STAGES IN THE URBANIZATION OF WATER SUPPLY <ul><li>Early 19 th  century : supremacy of private delivery </li></u...
BARCELONA AND MADRID Case studies
PRE-MODERN WATER SUPPLY AND URBAN GROWTH IN THE 19TH CENTURY <ul><li>Rec Comtal </li></ul><ul><li>City wells and other eph...
THE ROAD TO MODERNITY <ul><li>Second half 19th century: public and private initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater </li>...
<ul><li>From atomized suppliers to the private monopoly of water supply: Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona (French an...
<ul><li>1899, 1905 and 1910: tenders to enlarge supply </li></ul><ul><li>State Commission: proposal of municipalization </...
<ul><li>SGAB: “there is no need to search for more water”, “citizens consume little”, lack of hygienic habits </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Important economic reforms in Catalunya </li></ul><ul><li>July 1936: Aguas de Barcelona Empresa Colectivizada </li...
FRANCO’S RULE: MASSIVE MOBILIZATION OF RESOURCES <ul><li>Dramatic population growth (internal migration) </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Francoist Spain:   Mobilization water resources for economic purposes and territorial articulation </li></ul>Sourc...
DEMOCRACY, EUROPE, ECONOMIC CRISIS <ul><li>Droughts hit hard. 1973: project to transfer water from the Ebro </li></ul><ul>...
1990S: A CONFLICTUAL DECADE <ul><li>Quality concerns  </li></ul><ul><li>Water wars in Barcelona in the 1990s </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Both Madrid and Barcelona (cities) stop growing and even lose population from the 1980s onwards </li></ul><ul><li>...
DROUGHT IN THE 2000S <ul><li>The Tajo river as the new source </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of water markets? </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>19th century: french capital; early 20th century: spanish capital </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish expansion (1960s and 1...
<ul><li>12 M people supplied </li></ul><ul><li>>1200 municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>>50% share Spanish private water mar...
INTERNATIONALIZATION AGBAR <ul><li>Argentina starting point and main failure </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona: AGBAR </li></ul>
INTERNATIONALIZATION CYII <ul><li>1990s: some tenders in Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank (2001): CYII as a mode...
DIVERSIFICATION: BEYOND THE WATER CYCLE <ul><li>Bottled water </li></ul><ul><li>Certification and environmental control </...
NEW CHOREOGRAPHIES OF POWER <ul><li>“ Foreignization” of the company (SUEZ) </li></ul><ul><li>Blurring of the public-priva...
NEW CHOREOGRAPHIES OF POWER <ul><li>Context: neoliberal turn in urban governance in Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale: </...
HISTORY OF THE URBANIZATION OF WATER <ul><li>Different ecological projects  Difference due to geographical reasons, to po...
<ul><li>Mediatization of the drought: the environment as an arena of power and spectacle (Brú 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Reso...
NEOLIBERALIZATION OF WATER SUPPLY (1) <ul><li>Privatization : Public-Private Partnerships as a key element. Increase of pr...
NEOLIBERALIZATION OF WATER SUPPLY (2) <ul><li>Marketization : creation of water markets in both Madrid and Barcelona </li>...
CRISIS AND NEOLIBERALIZATION SCARCITY DROUGHT (Quantity) More INFRASTRUCTURE More efficiency in the consumption (increase ...
FUTURE PROSPECTS <ul><li>The Great Transformation of the water supply in Madrid and Barcelona? </li></ul>Barcelona Madrid ...
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03.07.conference hugh march

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03.07.conference hugh march

  1. 1. Urbanizing the water supply of Barcelona and Madrid through the 20th and 21st centuries From the local to the global Hug March, PhD, Geography Department, UAB David Saurí, Prof., Geography Department, UAB International conference on Environmental Conflicts and Justice, Barcelona, July 2010
  2. 2. THE MULTIPLE MEANINGS OF WATER Water as life, human right, commons Water as a sacred and cultural flow Water as power and control Water as 2 Hidrogens and 1 Oxigen
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ Aguas de Barcelona: Una apuesta por el petróleo del siglo XXI” [Aguas de Barcelona: a good bet for the oil of the 21 st century] (Expansión (economic journal) 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The environment is no longer a simple concern of proactive governments. It has become a global economic issue”, Suez Environment ( http://www.suez-environnement.com/en/profile/about-us/challenges/challenges/ ) </li></ul>Water as a commodity, money, economic power
  4. 4. “ El Canal de Isabel II retoma su plan para sacar a bolsa el 49% del capital” [The Canal de Isabel II retakes its plan to float 49% of its capital in the stock exchange” “ Esperanza Aguirre S.A. La gran privatizadora” “ Suez Environment se hace con la mayoría del capital del Grupo Agbar” [Suez Environment to take over most of the capital of the Agbar group”] Expansión, 18/2/10 Público, 12/10/08 La Vanguardia, 22/10/2009
  5. 5. Changing choreographies of power Neoliberalization of environmental governance Capital flows through the hydrosocial cycle Historical urban political ecology To analyse convergences and divergences in the modern urbanization of water in Madrid and Barcelona Domestication of the water flows
  6. 6. KEY CONCEPT: URBANIZATION <ul><li>Urbanization as “a process by which new and more complex relationships of society and nature are created” (Keil 2003:729) </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization of the water supply : the process of mobilization of water resources to keep pace with urban growth. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Ecological projects are always socio-political projects, and viceversa (Harvey 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>“ to trace the flow of water through cities is to illuminate the functioning of modern societies in all their complexity” (Gandy 2002:22) </li></ul><ul><li>“ the history of cities can be read as a history of water” (Gandy 2002:22) </li></ul><ul><li>City landscapes are “sculped into life-sustaining circulatory system through the interaction of the flow of water and the flow of money ” (Gandy 2002:23) </li></ul>SOME PREMISES…
  8. 8. <ul><li>“ If we were to capture some of the metabolized flows that weave together the urban fabric and excavate the networks that brought them there, we would pass with continuity from the local to the global , from the human to the non-human . These flows would narrate many interrelated tales of the city […[ They would make up the (hi)story of a city of flows” (Kaika 2005:25) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Neoliberalism : a paradigm that seeks to naturalize the market as a mean for assessing and distributing life’s necessities and luxuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Neoliberalism arrives in different places in different ways, articulates with other political projects, takes multiple material forms, and can give rise to unexpected outcomes (Larner 2003:511): hybridity </li></ul><ul><li>Castree (2006): perplexing amorphousness of neoliberal reforms in environmental governance </li></ul><ul><li>Path specificity: Important to consider the specific array of historically contingent social and political forces </li></ul>NEOLIBERALISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  10. 10. (TYPICAL) STAGES IN THE URBANIZATION OF WATER SUPPLY <ul><li>Early 19 th century : supremacy of private delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Late 19 th and early 20 th centuries : municipalization wave </li></ul><ul><li>Mid 20 th century : increase in the role of the state (even nationalization) </li></ul><ul><li>Late 20 th : private participation in the urban water supply </li></ul>Neither MADRID nor especially BARCELONA followed exactly such steps
  11. 11. BARCELONA AND MADRID Case studies
  12. 12. PRE-MODERN WATER SUPPLY AND URBAN GROWTH IN THE 19TH CENTURY <ul><li>Rec Comtal </li></ul><ul><li>City wells and other ephemeral streams </li></ul><ul><li>Cerdà’s eixample: termination of the Rec Comtal model </li></ul><ul><li>Viajes del Agua: groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Water vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Castro’s Ensanche: rupture of the historical urban limits </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul>19th century Urban growth (Modern Urban Planning): key factor in the search for new resources
  13. 13. THE ROAD TO MODERNITY <ul><li>Second half 19th century: public and private initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition of landowners and industrialists to expand the water system </li></ul><ul><li>1848: Real Orden: projects to water Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water: Lozoya river </li></ul><ul><li>Debate public/private </li></ul><ul><li>Failed private initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Public undertaking </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul>Barcelona: production of scarcity Madrid: public initiative
  14. 14. <ul><li>From atomized suppliers to the private monopoly of water supply: Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona (French and Belgian capital) </li></ul><ul><li>1851: the Canal de Isabel II is created. State initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of credit: privatization  failed </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul>THE CREATION OF CENTRALIZED SUPPLIERS Diverging political projets, diverging socio-ecological projects
  15. 15. <ul><li>1899, 1905 and 1910: tenders to enlarge supply </li></ul><ul><li>State Commission: proposal of municipalization </li></ul><ul><li>Political change+typhus +WWI: municipalization failed </li></ul><ul><li>Economic crises and attempt of privatization  failed </li></ul><ul><li>State-owned company (but different configurations) </li></ul><ul><li>Debate around the need to municipalize the CYII </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul>EARLY 20TH CENTURY: FAILING MUNICIPALIZATION Failed attempts to change the nature of the supplier
  16. 16. <ul><li>SGAB: “there is no need to search for more water”, “citizens consume little”, lack of hygienic habits </li></ul><ul><li>Metering generalized </li></ul><ul><li>Maluquer (1920): high prices  low consumption </li></ul><ul><li>1900-1930: important urban growth of Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply kept pace with urban growth </li></ul><ul><li>Metering generalized, water cheaper than Barcelona. High consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul>CREATION OF SCARCITY VS. CREATION OF ABUNDANCE Barcelona: production of scarcity Madrid: important mobilization of resources
  17. 17. <ul><li>Important economic reforms in Catalunya </li></ul><ul><li>July 1936: Aguas de Barcelona Empresa Colectivizada </li></ul><ul><li>Unification of price </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms not as important as Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Canales del Lozoya </li></ul><ul><li>Participation of workers in the Board </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in labour conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul>A UTOPIAN BREAK: (BRIEF) COLLECTIVIZATION Important reforms at the social level but also at the economical level
  18. 18. FRANCO’S RULE: MASSIVE MOBILIZATION OF RESOURCES <ul><li>Dramatic population growth (internal migration) </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent water problems and shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>1950s: concession to the SGAB Llobregat </li></ul><ul><li>1960s: Ter transfer </li></ul><ul><li>1950s: Total regulation of the Lozoya river. </li></ul><ul><li>1960s: New rivers into the system </li></ul>Scarcity concerns, population growth and political will triggers the incorporation of new water flows
  19. 19. <ul><li>Francoist Spain: Mobilization water resources for economic purposes and territorial articulation </li></ul>Source: Toran (1964). Las Grandes presas en España. Revista de Obras Públicas 2988:9-16 1934 97 Dams 1964 344 Dams
  20. 20. DEMOCRACY, EUROPE, ECONOMIC CRISIS <ul><li>Droughts hit hard. 1973: project to transfer water from the Ebro </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy+economic dowturn: Ebro transfer halted </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts continued to enlarge Madrid water supply system </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul>Estabilization of water demand in the late 1970s and early 1980s due to the economic downturn Multiple and multi-scalar layers of water management
  21. 21. 1990S: A CONFLICTUAL DECADE <ul><li>Quality concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Water wars in Barcelona in the 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>New proposals to bring water from the Ebro: high contestation (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Old projects of dams are revived for the Jarama and Sorbe rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>Drought alarms </li></ul><ul><li>European legislation sharply influencing water policies </li></ul>Socio-Environmental conflicts around water provision explode, especially in Barcelona
  22. 22. <ul><li>Both Madrid and Barcelona (cities) stop growing and even lose population from the 1980s onwards </li></ul><ul><li>Suburban growth in low density patterns: urban sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming pools and lawns as new consumpiton devices </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven domestic water consumption, ranging from 100 to over 400 lpcd </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul>WATER METABOLISM AND SUBURBANIZATION Late 20 th and early 21 st century: Suburbanization of water scarcity
  23. 23. DROUGHT IN THE 2000S <ul><li>The Tajo river as the new source </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of water markets? </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>2000s: Severe and recurrent drought </li></ul><ul><li>Mediatization of drought </li></ul><ul><li>The crises opens up the possibility to obtain water from further away </li></ul><ul><li>Desalination: a cornucopia? </li></ul><ul><li>Transfers back again: Rhone, Ebro </li></ul>Incorporation of resources from far beyond the territorial limits  Displacement of the conflicts?
  24. 24. <ul><li>19th century: french capital; early 20th century: spanish capital </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish expansion (1960s and 1970s) </li></ul><ul><li>1980s: French capital </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification and internationalization (from 1980s) </li></ul><ul><li>1970s: early diversification (Hidráulica Santillana) </li></ul><ul><li>1990s: corporatization </li></ul><ul><li>2000s: internationalization </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona (SGAB, Agbar) </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid (Canal de Isabel II) </li></ul>THE ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF WATER SUPPLY OR HOW WATER LUBRICATES THE CIRCULATION OF CAPITAL (SWYNGEDOUW 1997) From local/regional suppliers to multinational water companies
  25. 25. <ul><li>12 M people supplied </li></ul><ul><li>>1200 municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>>50% share Spanish private water market </li></ul><ul><li>6 M people supplied (whole region of Madrid) </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion beyond Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>Agbar (Barcelona) </li></ul><ul><li>Canal de Isabel II (Madrid) </li></ul>Cáceres, 93,000 CAM >6M
  26. 26. INTERNATIONALIZATION AGBAR <ul><li>Argentina starting point and main failure </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona: AGBAR </li></ul>
  27. 27. INTERNATIONALIZATION CYII <ul><li>1990s: some tenders in Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank (2001): CYII as a model to export </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia, Ecuador, República Dominicana </li></ul><ul><li>China as the new frontier </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid: Canal de Isabel II </li></ul>
  28. 28. DIVERSIFICATION: BEYOND THE WATER CYCLE <ul><li>Bottled water </li></ul><ul><li>Certification and environmental control </li></ul><ul><li>Waste management </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Other business </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile communications </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul>Many activities related to the Environment: new spheres/frontiers of capital accumulation
  29. 29. NEW CHOREOGRAPHIES OF POWER <ul><li>“ Foreignization” of the company (SUEZ) </li></ul><ul><li>Blurring of the public-private frontier </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul>
  30. 30. NEW CHOREOGRAPHIES OF POWER <ul><li>Context: neoliberal turn in urban governance in Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need of capital to cope with environmental needs and droughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of choice, popular capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law approved to convert the CYII into a PLC </li></ul><ul><li>Contestation and legal problems </li></ul><ul><li>Process in a standstill, 2010 definitive privatization? </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid. Privatization of the Canal de Isabel II </li></ul>
  31. 31. HISTORY OF THE URBANIZATION OF WATER <ul><li>Different ecological projects  Difference due to geographical reasons, to political reasons, and to the nature of the supplier </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid: key role of State intervention; status of Spanish capital city </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona: continuous tension (but also close collaboration) between the public and the private sphere </li></ul><ul><li>Complex web of intricate power choreographies  dialectical relation between State and Capital </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Mediatization of the drought: the environment as an arena of power and spectacle (Brú 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource scarcity: main argument for the expansion of the infrastructure, the creation of markets and the accumulation of capital </li></ul><ul><li>Old Hydraulic structuralism: water transfers and dams </li></ul><ul><li>New water structuralism: desalination (ecological modernization) but still water transfers (now more sophisticated through water markets) </li></ul>DROUGHT: KEY ELEMENT IN THE ARTICULATION OF WATER POLITICS AND POLICIES
  33. 33. NEOLIBERALIZATION OF WATER SUPPLY (1) <ul><li>Privatization : Public-Private Partnerships as a key element. Increase of private participation in the management of the resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Corporatization : New Private Management: the State emulates private practices and private ethos  step to ensure that a service remains public or prior step to privatization? </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialization : users as individual customers, redesign of institutions according to market principles </li></ul>
  34. 34. NEOLIBERALIZATION OF WATER SUPPLY (2) <ul><li>Marketization : creation of water markets in both Madrid and Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Reregulation : the State plays a key role in rescripting the new choreographies  Karl Polany (2001[1944]:205): “no market economy separated from the political sphere is possible” </li></ul><ul><li>Commodification : incomplete commodification, fictitious commodity. </li></ul>
  35. 35. CRISIS AND NEOLIBERALIZATION SCARCITY DROUGHT (Quantity) More INFRASTRUCTURE More efficiency in the consumption (increase prices) Interconnect the water networks COMMODIFICATION COMMERCIALIZATION PRIVATIZATION CORPORATIZATION DE/RE-REGULATION MARKETIZATION FINANCIAL CRISIS of the public provider / regulator SANITATION ENV. QUAL. (Quality) More efficiency in the distribution (private management) Social Physical More infrastructure Increase the taxes on water PRIVATIZATION
  36. 36. FUTURE PROSPECTS <ul><li>The Great Transformation of the water supply in Madrid and Barcelona? </li></ul>Barcelona Madrid <ul><li>Agbar controlled by Suez </li></ul><ul><li>Desalination definitely controlled by private capital? Bulk water supply? </li></ul><ul><li>Total privatization of the Canal de Isabel II? Water markets in the Tajo? </li></ul>

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