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Entrepreneurial Librarians and the Knowledge Economy: Entrepreneurial Relationship Development (ERD) Perspective

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Evaluation of how librarians impact the knowledge economy through relationship development

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Entrepreneurial Librarians and the Knowledge Economy: Entrepreneurial Relationship Development (ERD) Perspective

  1. 1. October 12, 2018 Shola Ajiboye Alexis Rittenberger Entrepreneurial Librarians and the Knowledge Economy: An Entrepreneurial Relationship Development (ERD) Perspective 1
  2. 2. Outline  Knowledge economy defined  Socio-cultural changes  Transformational librarians  Librarians and entrepreneurial capabilities  ERD as a necessary capability for Librarians  Implications for practice 2
  3. 3. Agent of Change: The Knowledge Economy Knowledge Economy Information and Communications Technology Infrastructure OpenInnovation Education Knowledge Management Creativity (White, Gunasekaran, & Ariguzo, 2013) 3
  4. 4. Librarians: Traditional Roles  Before the “Internet of Things” librarians • Vetted information • Provided physical access (Rowlands et al., 2008) • Guided patrons to information  Responsibilities consisted of the organization and maintenance of information  Substantiated through anecdotal information and personal accounts (Wiegand, 2015)  Supporters of local community needs / interests (Montague, 2015)  Agents of social justice (Wiegand, 1999) 4
  5. 5. Librarians: Incremental Changes  After the “Internet of Things” (Ashton, 2011) • The rise of the information professional (Shu & Mongeon, 2016)  Development of the knowledge economy through disruptive opportunities. (Shapiro, 2016) • Maker movement • Collaborations across institutional types (for-profit and non-profit)  Adoption of a culture of creativity  Agents of global social justice “what is relevant is the imagination and skill of whoever applies [knowledge], rather than the sophistication or newness of the information” (Drucker, 1969, p.269) 5
  6. 6. Problem of Practice  Knowledge economy (KE) drives growth and entrepreneurial competitiveness throughout the world.  Socio-cultural changes (SC) are taking placing at a faster pace than ever before.  Institutions, such as libraries that support the KE and proactively move along and ahead of SC are highly valued.  However, despite the fact that the field of library and information science has traditionally embodied and supported the KE and SC, librarians are yet to fully grasp their entrepreneurial capacity to grow, evolve and lead as drivers of the KE and SC. 6
  7. 7. The Entrepreneurial Librarians  Intrapreneurs/Entrebrarians (Entrepreneurs + Librarians) • Pursuers of ‘opportunity beyond the resources’ they currently control – (Gumpert and Stevenson, 1985; Stevenson, 2000) • Develops entrepreneurial orientation (innovativeness, proactiveness, risk- taking – autonomous, competitive aggressiveness)  Strategic • Opportunities • Threats  Entrepreneurship • Partnerships • Opportunities • Resources • Performance (growth, cutting costs, meeting goals, etc.) • Navigating the environment  ERD as a necessary capability for Librarians 7
  8. 8. Entrepreneurial Relationship Development (Ajiboye, Salipante & Lyytinen, 2018)  One engine that drives entrepreneurial activities is a combination of the strategy and process that entrepreneurs use to engage new partners and resources or maintain existing partners or resources as part of their growth strategy.  This requires the capacity of entrepreneurs to engage in various information behaviors and interactive practices.  Entrepreneurial relationship development (ERD) is defined here as a combination of strategy and process that entrepreneurs use to perceive, organize, implement, engage and maintain relationships with a variety of stakeholders for the purposes of increasing entrepreneurial activity and enabling better outcomes. 8
  9. 9. Research Motivation No research has been done on the connection between the entrepreneurial capabilities of librarians and, the knowledge economy and socio-cultural changes in the community. Therefore, this research attempts to: 1. Understand the entrepreneurial relational capability of librarians 2. Provide concrete evidence on the value of ERD to librarians 3. Look at the ways librarians’ ERD enhances knowledge economy and socio-cultural changes. 9
  10. 10. Research Question What components of ERD do librarians use to support and enhance the knowledge economy and socio- cultural changes? 10
  11. 11. Theoretical Framework 11
  12. 12. Theoretical Framework  Social Exchange Theory (Blau, 1964; Homans, 1974; Emerson, 1976)  Interactive Approach (Håkansson and Waluszewski, 2013)  Relational Capability (Nussbaum, 2011)  Information Behaviors (Ajiboye, 2018)  Interactive Practices (Ajiboye, 2018) 12
  13. 13. Research Model 13
  14. 14. Methods  Sample & Data Collection  Data examination  Measures • 5 latent constructs with their observed variables • Q-Sort and Pre-test • 52 items including five items for social desirability • Self-administered survey on Qualtrics online  Data analysis • Dataset was submitted to an EFA using IBM’s SPSS version 25 • Evaluated the psychometric properties of five latent constructs in one CFA using IBM’s AMOS version 25. • To test the mediation effects, we performed a bootstrap, setting the samples at 5,000 percentile, confidence intervals at 95 and bias corrected confidence at 95. 14
  15. 15. Sample – State Representation Unrepresented States • Arkansas • Connecticut • Delaware • Missouri • Mississippi • North Dakota • Nebraska • Oklahoma • South Dakota • Wyoming 15
  16. 16. Library Type 16
  17. 17. Years of Service 17
  18. 18. Age 18
  19. 19. Gender 19
  20. 20. Level of Education 20
  21. 21. Methods  Sample & Data Collection  Data examination  Measures • 5 latent constructs with their observed variables • Q-Sort and Pre-test • 52 items including five items for social desirability • Self-administered survey on Qualtrics online  Data analysis • Dataset was submitted to an EFA using IBM’s SPSS version 25 • Evaluated the psychometric properties of five latent constructs in one CFA using IBM’s AMOS version 25. • To test the mediation effects, we performed a bootstrap, setting the samples at 5,000 percentile, confidence intervals at 95 and bias corrected confidence at 95. 21
  22. 22. Preliminary Findings 22
  23. 23. Result of Hypothesis 23 Hypothese s # Variables Relationships Direct Effects Hypotheses H1a IB -> RC 0.65*** Supported H1b IB -> SC -0.15 Not Supported H1c IB -> KE -0.12 Not Supported H2a IP -> RC 0.55* Supported H2b IP -> SC 0.14 Supported H2c IP -> KE 0.41 Supported H3a RC -> SC 0.52** Supported H3b RC -> KE 0.57* Supported Note: * p < .05. ** < .01. *** p < .001 Direct Effects of Variables
  24. 24. Result of Hypothesis 24 Mediation: Direct, Indirect and Total Effects of Variables Hypothe ses # Variables Relationships Direct Effects Indirect Effects Total Effects Hypotheses H4a IB -> SC through RC -0.15 0.34 0.19 Supported H4b IB -> KE through RC -0.12 0.37 0.25 Supported H5a IP -> SC through RC 0.14 0.02 0.16 Supported H5b IP -> KE through RC 0.41 0.03 0.44** Supported Note: * p < .05. ** < .01. *** p < .001
  25. 25.  Small sample size  Biases that may be caused by social desirability Limitations 25
  26. 26. Discussion 26
  27. 27.  Managerial: o Opportunities for continuing education programs o Greater applicability of performance assessment o New measurements for community contributions  Practitioner: o Provide insight into the ways librarians can be embedded in global and local communities o Encourage librarians to “take a chance” Practical Applications 27
  28. 28. We want to hear from you The measurement tool is still open. We welcome you to participate. https://cwru.az1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_5nIwt3sWL8ZXfnL 28
  29. 29. Select References Ajiboye, S., Lyytinen, K. & Salipante, P. (2018). Designing entrepreneurial relationship development for passion and action: The roles of information behavior and interactive practices (Quantitative Research Report). Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. London: John Wiley. Drucker, P. F. (1969). The age of discontinuity: guidelines to our changing society. New York: Harper & Row. Emerson, R. M. (August 01, 1976). Social Exchange Theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 1, 335-362. Håkansson, H., & Waluszewski, A. (April 01, 2013). A never ending story — Interaction patterns and economic development. Industrial Marketing Management, 42, 3, 443-454. Homans, G. C., & Merton, R. K. (1974). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt. Nussbaum, M. C. (2011). Creating capabilities: The human development approach. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap. White, D. S., Gunasekaran, A., & Ariguzo, G. C. (2013). The structural components of a knowledge- based economy. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 7(4), 504–518. 29

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