Defining Community Engagement for the Social Entrepreneur
This presentation draws on field literature and provides examples of how community engagement or service learning activities can be defined and what the scholarly implications of that could be as well. This includes some examples of successful projects that found a great impact for the field of librarianship. –Mary G. Scanlon, Research and Instruction Librarian for Business and Economics, Wake Forest University
–Michael A. Crumpton, Assistant Dean for Administrative Services, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Our InstitutionsThe Institute for Community & EconomicEngagementThe Institute for PublicEngagement
Auerswald and Quadir• Social entrepreneurs are individuals who seek to discover,refine, and employ effective solutions to societal challenges.• Anyone who takes it upon themselves to organize a solution toa social challenge.• Regardless of context or motivations, the positive societalimpact of entrepreneurship is to force change in the statusquo, driving improvements to the provision of goods andservices.
Defining SocialEntrepreneurship• Drives social change,must be lasting andhavetransformationalbenefits• Holds high promisefor improvements
Entrepreneurship• Positive• Special, innate abilities• Act on opportunities• Out-of-box thinking• Determination• Create something new• Negative• Ex post term• Passage of time• Delayed impact orbenefitValue creation by searching andresponding to the need for change
Components ofEntrepreneurship• Context• Unsatisfactory(subpar) equilibrium• Outcome• Permanent shift fromlower-qualityequilibrium to a higherquality• Characteristics• Inspiration• Creativity• Direct action• Courage• Fortitude
Social aspects• Value proposition• Motivation is theprocess of identifyingand pursuing vision• Value = large-scaletransformation thatbenefits a significantpart of society• Target is underserved,neglected ordisadvantagedpopulation
Summary definition• Social entrepreneurship components:• Stable but unjust equilibrium that causes exclusion,marginalization or suffering• Identifying opportunity to unjust equilibrium and creating socialvalue proposition• Forging new equilibrium that is stable and improves impact toaffected population
Other Definitions• J.A. Banks, first use, distinction between “tinkering” and“utterly changing”• Dees, most often cited; 5 essential characteristics:• Innovative• Opportunity oriented• Resourceful• Value creating• Change agents
Dacin, Dacin and Tracey• Four Key Factors of the social entrepreneur• Individual characteristics• Sphere of operation• Processes and resources• Mission• Future avenues for analysis• Institutions and social movements• Networks• Culture• Identity and image• cognition
Organizational Leads• Schools of business in higher education• Mgmt processes and revenue creation (sustainable)• Philanthropic organizations• Ashoka• Schwab Foundation• Skoll Foundation• Kauffman Foundation• Libraries
Your turn to reflect• In groups of two or three, think of an issue on your campus orcommunity that impacts a lot of people (social) and is stable,yet not at a desirable level.• What would be a value proposition to improve the level ofcomfort/benefit/desire?
…….continued• Can you approach the problem from a different point of view?• How could the new approach improve the value to thestakeholders?
Social Entrepreneurship• Service learning is a way to teach social entrepreneurship.• Service-learning classes have greater information literacy needsthan traditional courses.• Librarians play a larger role in these classes.
Social EntrepreneurshipWe already teach entrepreneurship.North Carolina Entrepreneurship CenterCenter for Entrepreneurial StudiesInterdisciplinary Center forEntrepreneurship and e-Business
Social EntrepreneurshipWhat’s missing is the ‘social’ part.
Social EntrepreneurshipService-learning provides the missing link betweenentrepreneurship education and social entrepreneurshipeducation.
Service Learning• A well-established and accepted pedagogy• Practiced widely across higher education and K-12• Supported by a substantial body of scholarly research andliterature• Learning outcomes confirmed in numerous research projects
Characteristics of Service Learning• A learning experience where studentsactively participate in service experiencesthat meet a real community need;• The service enhances what is taught in the classroomand is integrated into the students’ academic curricula;• And the program provides structured time for a studentto think, talk, or write about what the student did andsaw during the actual service activity.The National and Community Service Act of 1990
Characteristics of Service Learning• A learning experience where students activelyparticipate in service experiences that meet areal community need;• The service enhances what is taughtin the classroom and is integrated intothe students’ academic curricula;• And the program provides structured time for astudent to think, talk, or write about what thestudent did and saw during the actual serviceactivity.The National and Community Service Act of 1990
Characteristics of Service Learning• A learning experience where students activelyparticipate in service experiences that meet a realcommunity need;• The service enhances what is taught in theclassroom and is integrated into the students’academic curricula;• The program provides structured time fora student to think, talk, or write aboutwhat he or she did and saw during theactual service activity.The National and Community Service Act of 1990
A Model of Service LearningSubject LearningReflection CommunityEngagement
Librarian’s Role in ServiceLearning• Information literacy becomes key• Service-learning courses have information needs beyond those ofa traditional course• Students have evolving information literacy needs throughout thesemester• This leads to repeated contact between students and librarians• Librarian’s role is expanded
Information NeedsTraditional Class• Subject learningService-Learning Class• Subject learning• Community engagement• Reflection
Information Needs for Service-Learning• Subject Learning:• Journal articles• Books• Community engagement:• Info about the community organization• Demographic data• Info on the local issue• Reflection:• Info on the issue at the national or international level• Benchmarking against similar community organizationselsewhere
Challenges & OpportunitiesLibrarians are neither talking nor writing about service learning,though a few LIS schools are using service learning in theircurricula
Challenges & Opportunities• Little to no relevant literature• Neither research nor case studies• “One can examine [the literature] and barely find amention…of the impact of service learning on library services,information literacy, information-seeking behavior, or criticalthinking as it pertains to human information processing.There is simply a research void…” - John S. Riddle, 2003
How to Support ServiceLearning?• Become familiar with those faculty who are basing their classeson service-learning• Become familiar with the literature on the methods andadvantages of service-learning• Collaborate with faculty before classes begin to schedulelibrary instruction time and discuss research topics
Service LearningSupport OrganizationsCampus CompactNational Service Learning Clearinghouse
Role of the Librarian?• Support research• Provide venue for gathering• Facilitate groups• Add perspective• Encourage/participate service learning projects• Others?