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Physical separations. <ul><li>There are several techniques which we use in a chemistry lab to separate mixtures. </li></ul...
Let us start with simple filtration The sieve is a crude filtration apparatus but using the coffee filter makes it better.
Filtrate goes through the filter paper. The residue get trapped by the filter paper residue filtrate
The usual set up for filtration
Suction filtration This method is faster once it is set up because a water pump sucks out the air beneath the filter paper
CHROMATOGRAPHY
The dyes stick and unstick to the paper many thousands of times as they move up the paper. The difference in ‘stickyness’ ...
PHYSICAL SEPARATIONS Chromatography
At the start the dyes are placed in the solvent in a closed container The chromatogram at the end of the run. The sovent f...
Chromatography This is what it may look like whilst the solvent front rises up the paper. One doesn’t always need expensiv...
The results can look complicated BUT, with the help of R f  values we can simplify them
Rf Values <ul><li>An Rf value is the distance travelled by the dye or spot divide by the distance travelled by the solvent...
Really simple distillation
Simple distillation
OTHER VERSIONS of SIMPLE DISTILLATION
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION Fractional distillation This differs from simple distillation by using a fractionating column betw...
Fractional distillation This is what an industrial version looks like on the inside
CENTRIFUGE (The spinning machine)
Using a separating funnel This is used to separate liquids which do not mix by pouring off the separate liquids
More separating funnels
MAGNETIC SEPARATIONS
Using sublimation
Using sublimation An experiment using a piece of air freshener
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Physical sepration ok1294992218

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Physical sepration ok1294992218

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Physical separations. <ul><li>There are several techniques which we use in a chemistry lab to separate mixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>We will look at several in our Grade 10 course </li></ul>
  3. 3. Let us start with simple filtration The sieve is a crude filtration apparatus but using the coffee filter makes it better.
  4. 4. Filtrate goes through the filter paper. The residue get trapped by the filter paper residue filtrate
  5. 5. The usual set up for filtration
  6. 6. Suction filtration This method is faster once it is set up because a water pump sucks out the air beneath the filter paper
  7. 7. CHROMATOGRAPHY
  8. 8. The dyes stick and unstick to the paper many thousands of times as they move up the paper. The difference in ‘stickyness’ separates the dyes.
  9. 9. PHYSICAL SEPARATIONS Chromatography
  10. 10. At the start the dyes are placed in the solvent in a closed container The chromatogram at the end of the run. The sovent front is marked with a pencil
  11. 11. Chromatography This is what it may look like whilst the solvent front rises up the paper. One doesn’t always need expensive apparatus!
  12. 12. The results can look complicated BUT, with the help of R f values we can simplify them
  13. 13. Rf Values <ul><li>An Rf value is the distance travelled by the dye or spot divide by the distance travelled by the solvent. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the solvent always goes higher the Rf value is less than 1 </li></ul><ul><li>If two dyes of the same colour have the same Rf value, then it is the same dye . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Really simple distillation
  15. 15. Simple distillation
  16. 16. OTHER VERSIONS of SIMPLE DISTILLATION
  17. 17. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION Fractional distillation This differs from simple distillation by using a fractionating column between the flask and the cold water condenser. It may be used to separate liquids with closer boiling points
  18. 18. Fractional distillation This is what an industrial version looks like on the inside
  19. 19. CENTRIFUGE (The spinning machine)
  20. 20. Using a separating funnel This is used to separate liquids which do not mix by pouring off the separate liquids
  21. 21. More separating funnels
  22. 22. MAGNETIC SEPARATIONS
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Using sublimation
  25. 25. Using sublimation An experiment using a piece of air freshener

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