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BONDING
Covalent Bonds
LET’S FIRST   REVIEW  IONIC  BONDING
In an  IONIC  bond, electrons are lost or gained, resulting in the formation of  IONS  in ionic compounds. F K
F K
F K
F K
F K
F K
F K
F K + _
F K The compound potassium fluoride consists of potassium (K + ) ions and fluoride (F - ) ions + _
F K + _ The ionic bond is the attraction between the positive K +  ion and the negative F -  ion
So What Are Covalent bonds?
In covalent bonding, atoms still want to achieve a noble gas    configuration (the octet rule).
In covalent bonding, atoms still want to achieve a noble gas configuration (the octet rule).  But rather than losing or ga...
In covalent bonding, atoms still want to achieve a noble gas configuration(the octet rule). But rather than losing or gain...
Cl 2 Chlorine Forms A Covalent Bond With itself
Cl Cl How Will Two Chlorine Atoms react?
Cl Cl Each chlorine atom wants to  gain one electron to achieve an octet
Cl Cl Neither atom will give up an electron –chlorine is highly electronegative. What’s the solution – what can theydo to ...
Cl Cl
Cl Cl
Cl Cl
Cl Cl
Cl Cl octet
Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets octet
Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets The octet is achieved by each atom sharing the electr...
Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets The octet is achieved by each atom sharing the electr...
Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets This is the bonding pair
Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets It is a  single  bonding pair
Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets It is called a   SINGLE BOND
Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets Single bonds are abbreviated with a dash
Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets This is the chlorine molecule, Cl 2
O 2 Oxygen is also one of the diatomic molecules
How will two oxygen atoms bond? O O
Each atom has two unpaired electrons O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative. So both atoms want to gain two electrons. O O
Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative. So both atoms want to gain two electrons. O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
O O Both electron pairs are shared.
6 valence electrons plus 2 shared electrons = full octet O O
6 valence electrons plus 2 shared electrons = full octet O O
two bonding pairs, O O making a  double   bond
For convenience, the double bond  can be shown as two dashes.  O O = O O
This is the oxygen molecule, O 2 O O = this is so  cool!!
Covalent bonding allows for an amazingly large variety of compounds such as
small compounds like water and carbon dioxide,
and ethanol (alcohol),
to larger compounds such as aspirin, (21 atoms)
and the  sex hormones estradiol (estrogen) and testosterone, (49 atoms) (44 atoms)
to all of the 40,000 proteins you have in your body, including
insulin, with 779 atoms,
and hemoglobin, with about 9500 atoms!
There are an estimated 10 40  possible compounds containing up to 50 atoms The known chemical world, including natural and...
As of 2007, there are about 31,000,000 known compounds; About 12.5 million of those are commercially available. Thousands ...
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Ionic bonds ok1294990488

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Ionic bonds ok1294990488

  1. 1. BONDING
  2. 2. Covalent Bonds
  3. 3. LET’S FIRST REVIEW IONIC BONDING
  4. 4. In an IONIC bond, electrons are lost or gained, resulting in the formation of IONS in ionic compounds. F K
  5. 5. F K
  6. 6. F K
  7. 7. F K
  8. 8. F K
  9. 9. F K
  10. 10. F K
  11. 11. F K + _
  12. 12. F K The compound potassium fluoride consists of potassium (K + ) ions and fluoride (F - ) ions + _
  13. 13. F K + _ The ionic bond is the attraction between the positive K + ion and the negative F - ion
  14. 14. So What Are Covalent bonds?
  15. 15. In covalent bonding, atoms still want to achieve a noble gas configuration (the octet rule).
  16. 16. In covalent bonding, atoms still want to achieve a noble gas configuration (the octet rule). But rather than losing or gaining electrons, atoms now share an electron pair.
  17. 17. In covalent bonding, atoms still want to achieve a noble gas configuration(the octet rule). But rather than losing or gaining electrons, atoms now share an electron pair. The shared electron pair is called a bonding pair
  18. 18. Cl 2 Chlorine Forms A Covalent Bond With itself
  19. 19. Cl Cl How Will Two Chlorine Atoms react?
  20. 20. Cl Cl Each chlorine atom wants to gain one electron to achieve an octet
  21. 21. Cl Cl Neither atom will give up an electron –chlorine is highly electronegative. What’s the solution – what can theydo to achieve an octet?
  22. 22. Cl Cl
  23. 23. Cl Cl
  24. 24. Cl Cl
  25. 25. Cl Cl
  26. 26. Cl Cl octet
  27. 27. Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets octet
  28. 28. Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets The octet is achieved by each atom sharing the electron pair in the middle
  29. 29. Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets The octet is achieved by each atom sharing the electron pair in the middle
  30. 30. Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets This is the bonding pair
  31. 31. Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets It is a single bonding pair
  32. 32. Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets It is called a SINGLE BOND
  33. 33. Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets Single bonds are abbreviated with a dash
  34. 34. Cl Cl circle the electrons for each atom that completes their octets This is the chlorine molecule, Cl 2
  35. 35. O 2 Oxygen is also one of the diatomic molecules
  36. 36. How will two oxygen atoms bond? O O
  37. 37. Each atom has two unpaired electrons O O
  38. 38. O O
  39. 39. O O
  40. 40. O O
  41. 41. O O
  42. 42. O O
  43. 43. O O
  44. 44. Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative. So both atoms want to gain two electrons. O O
  45. 45. Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative. So both atoms want to gain two electrons. O O
  46. 46. O O
  47. 47. O O
  48. 48. O O
  49. 49. O O
  50. 50. O O Both electron pairs are shared.
  51. 51. 6 valence electrons plus 2 shared electrons = full octet O O
  52. 52. 6 valence electrons plus 2 shared electrons = full octet O O
  53. 53. two bonding pairs, O O making a double bond
  54. 54. For convenience, the double bond can be shown as two dashes. O O = O O
  55. 55. This is the oxygen molecule, O 2 O O = this is so cool!!
  56. 56. Covalent bonding allows for an amazingly large variety of compounds such as
  57. 57. small compounds like water and carbon dioxide,
  58. 58. and ethanol (alcohol),
  59. 59. to larger compounds such as aspirin, (21 atoms)
  60. 60. and the sex hormones estradiol (estrogen) and testosterone, (49 atoms) (44 atoms)
  61. 61. to all of the 40,000 proteins you have in your body, including
  62. 62. insulin, with 779 atoms,
  63. 63. and hemoglobin, with about 9500 atoms!
  64. 64. There are an estimated 10 40 possible compounds containing up to 50 atoms The known chemical world, including natural and synthetic compounds, is far far far below 1% of that.
  65. 65. As of 2007, there are about 31,000,000 known compounds; About 12.5 million of those are commercially available. Thousands of new compounds are discovered or synthesized every week !

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