Supporting a Diverse Entrepreneurial Nation
Mark Hart and Jonathan Levie
London, 4th July 2018
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
• The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) research consortium
has been measuring the entrepreneurial activity of working age
adults across a wide range of countries in a comparable way since
• In 2017 the study conducted surveys in 54 sovereign nations and
represented the world’s most authoritative comparative study of
entrepreneurial activity in the general adult population.
• GEM’s primary focus is to:
– measure differences in entrepreneurial attitudes, activity and
aspiration between countries
– uncover factors which underpin these differences
– identify policies that may enhance entrepreneurial activity.
The Entrepreneurial Process and
GEM Operational Definitions
How can we use GEM data?
• International benchmarks and comparative analysis – tracking
entrepreneurial attitudes, aspiration and activity over time of
the adult population
• Only source of entrepreneurship data on key groups of
individuals - e.g., women, young people, ethnic minority
groups and immigrants
• Sub-national analysis with the pooled dataset – Home
Summary – Entrepreneurial Activity
• TEA rate of 8.7% in 2017 maintains the step-up observed after
the great recession from the previous long run stable rate of
• Increase is largely in low job expectation entrepreneurial
activity, with the relative prevalence of high expectation
activity dropping by around one quarter since the early 2000s.
• In 2017 one-fifth of working age individuals in the UK either
intended to start a business within the next three years; were
actively trying to start a business; or were running their own
• With these higher long-run entrepreneurial rates in the UK, start-up
funding becomes more important – especially for increased survival
• Two-fifths of entrepreneurs expected to self-fund – but, equal
proportions expect funding from banks, government and family to
be important sources of income.
• Engagement with informal investment suggests that alternative
sources including friends, angel investment and crowd-funding are
becoming more commonplace for early-stage entrepreneurs in the
face of more stringent formal channels.
THANKS TO OUR SPONSORS
If you would like any more information about the GEM UK and Global projects and any of its
activities please contact Professor Mark Hart (email@example.com); Professor Jonathan Levie
(firstname.lastname@example.org) or Dr Karen Bonner (email@example.com)
More details about the activities of GEM can be found at: