Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background & contributio...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography
international cohort comparison: background  contribution...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Joint workshop of the Committee on Industry, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (CIIE) and the Working Party on Industry Analysis (WPIA)

246 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Joint workshop of the Committee on Industry, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (CIIE) and the Working Party on Industry Analysis (WPIA)

  1. 1. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background & contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data &methods Accounting for job growth: disentangling size and and age eects in an international cohort comparison Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre contact:m.anyadike-danes@aston.ac.uk OECD workshop October 2013 Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  2. 2. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods prolegomena: what uk policymakers need to know about business demography Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  3. 3. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods 5 brutal facts every year a large number private sector rms are born in the UK ∼ typically between 200,000 and 250,000 most new born rms are very small ∼ around 90% have less than 5 employees a decade later between 70% and 80% of those new born rms will be dead of those which have survived to age 10 ∼ around 75% of those born with less than 5 employees will still have less than ve employees the rms are born with about 1 million jobs ∼ a decade later the survivors employ just half a million Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  4. 4. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods putting the facts together a simple framework can be used to put these facts together and it leads us to some (possibly) encouraging facts about job growth we start with a table which tracks rms by size at birth from birth to a date here 10 years into the future this is called an origin/destination table: the rows are origins ∼ the size-band at birth; the destinations are size-bands 10 years later data here is an average of four successive birth cohorts, rms born in four successive years: 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  5. 5. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table A: origin destination table, uk rms, birth to age10, destination (age 10) size-band 1-4 5-9 10-19 20+ dead all origin 1-4 36.0 6.1 2.3 1.3 145.1 190.8 (birth) 5-9 1.8 1.4 0.8 0.5 11.4 15.9 size 10-19 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 3.9 5.5 band 20+ 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.7 2.6 3.7 all 38.4 7.9 3.6 3.0 163.1 216.0 Note: average of birth cohorts 1998 to 2001 Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  6. 6. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table B: origin destination table, uk jobs by size-band, birth destination (age 10) size-band 1-4 5-9 10-19 20+ dead all origin 1-4 54.1 11.5 4.5 2.6 218.9 291.4 (birth) 5-9 11.3 8.8 5.2 3.7 73.1 102.1 size 10-19 5.8 4.1 5.9 6.2 52.4 74.3 band 20+ 13.8 6.2 7.0 145.0 334.7 506.7 all 84.9 30.6 22.6 157.4 678.9 974.5 Note: average of birth cohorts 1998 to 2001 Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  7. 7. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table C: origin destination table, uk jobs by size-band, age 10 destination (age 10) size-band 1-4 5-9 10-19 20+ all origin 1-4 64.7 40.0 31.0 86.2 222.0 (birth) 5-9 4.1 9.3 10.7 36.4 60.6 size 10-19 0.9 2.2 6.2 30.0 39.3 band 20+ 0.4 0.7 2.1 189.3 192.2 all 70.1 52.3 50.0 341.9 514.3 Note: average of birth cohorts 1998 to 2001 Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  8. 8. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table D: origin destination table, uk jobs by size-band '000, age 10 survivors, change birth to age10 destination (age 10) size-band 1-4 5-9 10-19 20+ all origin 1-4 9.7 23.6 24.4 77.8 135.5 (birth) 5-9 -4.5 0.4 4.8 26.6 27.3 size 10-19 -3.4 -1.5 0.4 23.2 18.6 band 20+ -7.2 -3.8 -4.3 43.7 28.4 all 5.4 18.6 25.3 171.4 209.9 Note: average of birth cohorts 1998 to 2001 Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  9. 9. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods two (possibly) encouraging facts a very small proportion ∼ less than 1% ∼ of the smallest (1 to 4 job) rms survive and make the transition to 20+ employees but this 1% make a very large contribution to job growth ∼ accounting for around one third of all (net) jobs added by survivors Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  10. 10. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods international cohort comparison: background contribution Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  11. 11. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods the project the team this paper uses data specially compiled by local experts in six countries on the cohort of rms born in 1998 the other team members are: Carl-Magnus Bjuggren, Linköping University and Dan Johansson, HUI Research and Örebro University, Sweden Sandra Gottschalk, ZEW, Germany Werner Hölzl, WIFO, Austria Mika Maliranta, ETLA and University of Jyväskylä, Finland Anja Myrann, Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Norway Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  12. 12. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods the problem Since (at least) David Birch's 1979 report on job generation in the US the contribution of dierent-sized businesses to job creation has attracted attention and been a source of (often acrimonious) controversy it has recently been suggested notably by Haltiwanger, Jarmin and Miranda (HJM, REStats 2013) that previous conclusions about size had been mistaken: because most rms are born small, size eects had been confounded with age eects so is it younger or smaller rms which are prolic job creators? HJM's conclusions: once we control for rm age there is no systematic relationship between rm size and growth and that young rms exhibit up-or-out dynamics Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  13. 13. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods contribution we probe the role of size, controlling for age, by comparing the cohorts of rms born in 1998 over their rst decade of life, using variation across half a dozen northern European countries Austria, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the UK to separate size from age in brief, there are three distinctive features of our approach: 1 we use a ner grained treatment of small size than is usual we divide rms with less than twenty employees into three size-bands 2 we cut through many of the measurement-related complications produced by the potential confounding of age and size eects by analysing birth cohort data 3 we use a purpose-built dataset constructed by national experts using a commonly agreed measurement framework to make comparisons across countries Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  14. 14. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods data overview Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  15. 15. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table 1: Austria, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden UK cohort98 rms, 1998 2008 survivors survival bus/pop birth 2008 ratio (%) ratio (1) (2) (3) (4) Austria 27403 8362 30.7 3.4 Finland 14737 3539 23.8 2.9 Germany 151075 45786 30.3 1.8 Norway 13463 4100 30.5 2.9 Sweden 36506 4284 11.8 4.1 UK 239649 40836 17.0 4.1 Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  16. 16. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table 2: Austria, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden UK cohort98 jobs '000, 1998 2008 survivors dierences birth birth 2008 (2)-(1) (3)-(2) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Austria 93.1 37.8 64.6 -55.3 26.8 Finland 38.7 15.9 32.3 -22.81 16.3 Germany 472.3 171.3 315.9 -301.0 144.6 Norway 120.7 46.6 71.2 -74.1 24.6 Sweden 259.9 43.6 58.4 -216.3 14.8 UK 1123.7 223.6 460.3 -900.1 236.7 Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  17. 17. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table 3: Austria, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden UK cohort98 jobs per rm, 1998 2008 survivors growth birth birth 2008 ratio rate(%) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Austria 3.40 4.52 7.72 1.708 5.5 Finland 2.62 4.51 9.12 2.024 7.3 Germany 3.13 3.74 6.90 1.844 6.3 Norway 8.96 11.37 17.36 1.527 4.3 Sweden 7.12 10.19 13.64 1.339 3.0 UK 4.69 5.47 11.27 2.059 7.5 Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  18. 18. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods primary decomposition Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  19. 19. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods the decomposition (1) avjobt = 4 i=1 (avjobbs i × fsdbs i × growthi ) (1) average surviving rm at birth, size-band i: avjobbs i share of survivor rms in size-band i: fsdbs i growth ratio for survivors in size-band i: growthi Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  20. 20. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods the decomposition (2) we can re-write the rst two terms as: avjobbs i = avjobb i × rsrwi (2) fsdbs i = fsdb i × rsrbi (3) average rm at birth, size-band i: avjobb i 'relative survival ratio' within size-bands, size-band i: rsrwi share of rms in size-band i: fsdb i 'relative survival ratio' between size-bands, size-band i: rsrbi Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  21. 21. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods the decomposition (3) which lead us to: avjobt = 4 i=1 [(avjobb i × rsrwi ) × (fsdb i × rsrbi ) × growthi ] (4) average rm at birth, size-band i: avjobb i 'relative survival ratio' within size-bands, size-band i: rsrwi share of rms in size-band i: fsdb i 'relative survival ratio' between size-bands, size-band i: rsrbi growth ratio for survivors in size-band i: growthi Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  22. 22. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table 4: Austria, cohort98 job growth decomposition by size-band: birth to 2008 avjobb rsrw avjobbs fsdb rsrb fsdbs growth avjobt (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 1-4 1.53 1.122 1.72 0.89 0.945 0.84 2.341 4.02 5-9 6.27 1.002 6.28 0.06 1.432 0.09 1.903 11.96 10-19 13.50 1.012 13.66 0.02 1.475 0.03 1.751 23.92 20+ 67.57 0.998 67.43 0.02 1.541 0.03 1.192 80.38 Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  23. 23. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Figure1:Austria, the 'three ratios' by size-band, ratio (log scale) size−band ratio(logscale) 0.6 0.8 1 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.7 1−4 5−9 10−19 20+ rsrb rsrw growth Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  24. 24. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table 5: Counterfactual decomposition by country of contributions to job growth ratio birth to 2008, Austria baseline avjobb fsdb rsrb rsrw growth inter total (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) UK -0.19 0.05 0.00 0.04 0.55 -0.03 0.42 FI -0.21 0.11 -0.08 0.12 0.58 -0.19 0.33 GE 0.20 0.00 0.00 -0.02 -0.12 0.08 0.14 NO -0.09 -0.17 0.00 0.02 0.12 -0.05 -0.17 SW 0.03 -0.17 0.04 -0.09 -0.29 0.12 -0.36 Key: avjobb, average number of jobs per rm at birth; fsdb, the rm size distribution at birth; rsrb , the between relative survival ratio; rsrw , the within relative survival ratio; growth, the growth ratio; inter, interaction eect; total, overall dierence in growth ratio. Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  25. 25. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Figure 2: growth ratios by size-band, all countries, ratio (log scale) size−band ratio(logscale) 0.6 0.8 1 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.7 3.5 4.5 1−4 5−9 10−19 20+ UK FIN GER AUT NOR SWE Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  26. 26. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table 6: Counterfactual decomposition of eect of size-band specic growth ratios by country, contribution to job growth ratio, birth to 2008, Austria baseline growth ratio by size-band 1 4 5 9 10 19 20+ inter total (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) UK 0.43 0.04 0.05 0.05 -0.02 0.55 FI 0.35 0.05 0.14 0.05 -0.01 0.58 GE 0.18 -0.06 -0.05 -0.18 -0.01 -0.12 NO 0.11 0.00 -0.02 0.04 -0.01 0.12 SW -0.24 -0.05 -0.01 0.02 -0.01 -0.29 Note: This is a decomposition of the growth rate term from Table 3. Column (6) of this table corresponds to column (5) of Table 6; for construction see text. Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  27. 27. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods secondary decomposition Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  28. 28. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods decomposition of size-band 1 4 at birth avjobt avjobbs = 4 i=1 (gri × seli × mobi ) (5) The three right hand side components are: the size-band specic growth ratios, one for each of the four 'destination' size-bands (gri ) a 'selection' adjustment, which captures the fact that the average size of 1 4 rms at birth varies slightly across their 'destination' size-bands those which move into larger size-bands turn out to have been slightly larger at birth (seli ) a 'mobility ratio', the proportion of rms born in size-band 1 4 which are in each 'destination' size-band in 2008 (mobi ) Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  29. 29. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table 7: Contributions of 1 4 size-band at birth to job growth ratio by destination (2008) size-band, Austria destination (2008) size-band 1-4 5-9 10-19 20+ (1) (2) (3) (4) growth 1.13 2.74 5.97 23.23 selection 0.92 1.33 1.29 1.32 mobility 0.800 0.134 0.044 0.022 contrib 0.829 0.489 0.339 0.675 share(%) 35.6 21.0 14.5 28.9 Memo: sum of contributions is 2.332, the growth ratio for Austrian rms born in size-band 1 4, see Appendix Table 1, column (5); dierencesMichael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  30. 30. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods Table 8: Counterfactual decomposition by country of contributions to 1 4 size-band job growth ratio, birth to 2008, Austria baseline growth select mobility inter total (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) UK 0.68 -0.09 0.54 0.21 1.33 FI 0.59 0.23 0.25 0.02 1.10 GE 0.20 -0.18 0.69 -0.16 0.54 NO -0.20 -0.12 0.84 -0.19 0.33 SW -0.46 -0.02 -0.60 0.31 -0.77 Note: This is a counterfactual calculation of the dierence between Austria's 14 size-band growth rate decomposition from Table 8 and the other countries. Column (5) of this table is overall 14 growth rate for Austria less each country's 14 growth rate from Appendix Table 1 Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  31. 31. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods closing remarks Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  32. 32. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods summing up In brief, 1 conrms perceptions about new-born rms typically very small 75% less than 5 employees few survive ten years and even fewer of the smallest rms born smallest which survive grow faster 2 variations in the performance of the very smallest accounts for a considerable proportion of variation in cross-country job growth 3 illustrates the power of a cohort approach to disentangle dynamics in two importantly age-related phenomena: survival and growth Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  33. 33. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods appendix: data methods Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  34. 34. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods data(1) The key dimensions of our 'benchmark' dataset are, 1 denition of a rm an employer enterprise, that is a business with at least one employee 2 denition of employee a person who receives a wage or salary from a rm 3 enumeration of employees head count with no distinction between full-time and part-time employees 4 rm birth date rst employee joins 5 rm death date last employee leaves 6 sectoral coverage the 'private' or 'business' sector (NACE rev1.1: 15 to 74; 90 to 93) 7 enumeration of rms all employer enterprises in the private sector Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  35. 35. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods data(2) denitions designed to be implemented using the administrative databases (tax and/ or social security OECD 'compliant') such databases typically have close to universal coverage but not always possible to distinguish between a de novo birth and rms which are 'born' following the break-up of an existing enterprise could not harmonise completely: Austria, Finland,Germany, Norway, and the UK, we count jobs (in Finland full-time equivalent jobs); in Sweden we count persons Note: the UK data is from the Oce of National Statistics (ONS) and is Crown copyright and reproduced with the permission of the controller of HMSO and Queen's Printer for Scotland.The use of the ONS statistical data in this work does not imply the endorsement of the ONS in relation to the interpretation or analysis of the statistical data. Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  36. 36. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods method we focus on the cohort of rms born 1998, measured at birth and a decade later in 2008 the key data analytical construct is an 'origin/destination' (O/D) matrix whose 'origin' rows are four broad size-band categories 1 4; 5 9; 10 19; 20+ at birth and whose 'destination' columns are size-band categories in 2008. each country team provided three of these matrices, 1 an O/D matrix of rm counts: this is a 4 × 5 matrix, an extra column is needed for rms from each size-band which are 'dead' by 2008 2 an O/D matrix of employee counts in 1998: this is a 4 × 5 matrix, an extra column is needed for rms from each size-band which are 'dead' by 2008 3 an O/D matrix of employee counts in 2008: this is a 4 × 4 matrix, by denition only 2008 survivors are counted Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison
  37. 37. prolegomena: whatukpolicymakersneedtoknowaboutbusinessdemography international cohort comparison: background contribution data overview primary decomposition secondary decomposition closing remarks appendix: data methods to read on ... For the detail see: Enterprise Research Centre Working paper No 2, available from: http://enterpriseresearch.ac.uk/publications/ erc-research-papers Michael Anyadike-Danes Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre cohort comparison

×