Community-Led Local Development (CLLD)
• A single methodology across all funds and
• Support will be “consistent and co-ordinated”
to make it easier to use multi-fund strategies
across both urban and rural areas
• CLLD is optional for ERDF, ESF and EMFF but
compulsory for EARFD
The role of LEADER in the new policy framework
Source: HM Government, Preliminary Guidance to Local Enterprise Partnerships on Development of Structural and Investment Strategies
Department for Business Innovation and Skills – 2013 (technical annex, p6)
Six key priorities 2014-2020
1: Fostering knowledge transfer and innovation in agriculture,
forestry and rural areas
2: Enhancing competitiveness of all types of agriculture and
enhancing farm viability
3: Promoting food chain organisation and risk management in
4: Restoring, preserving and enhancing ecosystems dependent
on agriculture and forestry
5: Promoting resource efficiency and supporting the shift
towards a low carbon and climate resilient economy in
agriculture, food and forestry sectors
6: Promoting social inclusion, poverty reduction and economic
development in rural area.
• A review of literature and other LEADER evaluations
• Questionnaire sent to a range of rural stakeholders -
generating 549 responses
• Interviews with a combined total of 83 key
stakeholders and beneficiaries in selected LAGs (using a
typology based on topography, spending rates and
axis/measures available to the LAG)
• Two workshops to test our findings with key personnel
in LEADER policy and delivery roles.
Leader grant per head of rural population
23% 47% 23% 8%
Helping make the
area a better
45% 45% 7% 3%
Taking a bottom-
up approach1 42% 41% 11% 6%
innovation2 36% 45% 11% 8%
1: Data from 503 usable responses; 2: Data from 506 usable responses
What Has LEADER done well?
The Positive Story…
• Decisions reflect local need
• Greater autonomy helps to develop local skills
• LEADER mobilises the local community and
economic actors and builds the capacity and
confidence of community members – “We can
• There is the flexibility to choose priorities.
The Positive Story…
• The increase in employment attributable to LEADER
was found to be modest in absolute terms, at an
average of 3.5 FTE per business, but this is significant
employment at a local level (Ekosgen, 2011).
“You get more bang for your buck in rural areas like this, it saves
one or two people having to go to Lincoln to get a job so it makes a
real difference. That money would’ve been lost in a bigger town”
• Many Leader grant applications have been submitted
by community groups and social enterprises and the
resultant projects continue to support and harness the
efforts of volunteers.
Great diversity of outcomes
• The volunteers had a ‘village hall mentality’ but are now able
to operate a modern and versatile public space so protecting
a major public investment
• The Forge Studios has provided free workspace to enable
young entrepreneurs to establish and grow a business
• The South Tyne Valley Railway is not only attracting additional
visitors, contrary to regional tourism trends, but the many
volunteers are more committed and lead more fulfilling lives
• Village Agents in remote rural Cumbria are finding novel ways
of delivering community service and especially support for
disadvantaged groups including the elderly
• Lakeland Eggs has enlisted a network of 50+ farmers into their
supply chain, animal welfare standards are exemplary and
employees are able to walk to their workplace
Great diversity of outcomes…cont’d
• Growing Together in Cornwall has through a simple concept
reinforced community cohesion, bolstered local food supply
chains and promoted healthier lifestyles
• Groombridge Hill farm in Kent is now defined by its new farm
shop rather than the opposite and the LEADER experience has
inspired new initiatives in renewable energy
• Kent Lavender Growers have gained vital credibility as
exporters to Continental markets
• Farmers markets have been established in Shropshire schools
so embedding the benefits of local food production into the
minds of future consumers
• Cumbria Woodlands has provided an essential translation
service to overcome the language barriers between funding
bodies and the forestry sector.
• Measurement of impact was restricted with a stronger focus on
• Under-represented groups remain a problem in some areas
leading some LAGs to develop specifically funded projects to
encourage their participation in rural development
• There were difficulties interpreting specific measures and
obtaining clarifications from RDAs and DEFRA (Hyder and ADAS,
• External policy relationships determine the scope for local policy
impact. In England, the removal of the regional layer of
government changed the nature of policy networks and allowed
more freedom at the local level.
“LEADER exists to deliver the RDPE and its policy goals and targets”
• Co-operation projects were less effective in England - Issues of
perception and cost.
Opportunities identified by LAGs
• Coverage could usefully include market towns that serve key
functions for rural hinterlands.
• Efficiency savings could be made from combining back-office
functions, without losing the focus on local issues.
• LAGs could benefit from a comprehensive set of good practice
guidelines based on experience of the current
programme…especially new LEADER groups.
- These might include: recruiting members, handling bids,
conducting meetings, contracting and monitoring
• A clear emphasis should remain on the value of local groups
applying good practice to meet local circumstances, and not
seeking to create top-down uniformity.
• Local self-evaluation throughout the process can be valuable
• The power-balance can be improved by greater communication
and local participation in the pre-implementation stages.
• Reporting and monitoring could be better aligned to LEADER
objectives, not just economic measures.
• The experiences from England highlight difficulties in terms of
managing risk, matching local opportunities to pre-defined
measures and dealing with bureaucracy throughout the
• It also highlights real opportunities, however, as local actors
have become increasingly capable at supporting applicants and
developing approaches tailored to their local areas.
► If its not risky – wouldn’t the private sector
fund it anyway?
Thank You….any questions?
Dr Gary Bosworth, University of Lincoln
firstname.lastname@example.org 01522 835576