Cooney Rotefosseire


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Presentation done by Dr Thomas M. Cooney Dublin Institute of Technology regarding a comparison of entrepreneurship between Norway and Ireland.
Acknowledgement to Dr. Thoams M Cooney and Dr Beate Rotefoss.

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Cooney Rotefosseire

  1. 1. Entrepreneurship Education – Comparing Norway and Ireland Dr Thomas M. Cooney Dublin Institute of Technology And Dr Beate Rotefoss Teknikparken, Bodo “ Young minds are not vessels to be filled, but fires to be ignited”
  2. 2. EU Reports Highlighting Need for Entrepreneurship Education <ul><li>EU Expert Group (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship Action Plan (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Lisbon Strategy for Growth and Jobs (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Brussels European Council of 23/24 March 2006 &quot;underlines the need of creating an overall positive entrepreneurial climate and of appropriate framework conditions that facilitate and encourage entrepreneurship and therefore invites the Member States to strengthen respective measures, including through entrepreneurship education and training at the appropriate level of education.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fostering Entrepreneurial Mindsets (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Oslo Agenda (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship in Higher Education, Especially Within Non-Business Studies (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Small Business Act (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>For further information go to: </li></ul>
  3. 3. Benefits of Entrepreneurship Education (1) <ul><li>Improved academic performance, school attendance, and educational attainment </li></ul><ul><li>Increased problem-solving and decision-making abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Improved interpersonal relationships, teamwork, money management, and public speaking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Job readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced social psychological development (self-esteem, ego development, self-efficacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived improved health status </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Logic Models and Outcomes for Youth Entrepreneurship Programs’ (2001), a report by the D.C. Children and Youth Investment Corporation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Benefits of Entrepreneurship Education (2) <ul><li>Interest in attending college increased by 32% </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational aspirations increased by 44 % </li></ul><ul><li>Independent reading increased by 4 % </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership behaviour increased by 8.5 % </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that attaining one's goals is within one's control (locus of control) increased </li></ul><ul><li>National Foundation for Teaching Entrepreneurship (NFTE) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Benefits of Entrepreneurship Education (3) <ul><li>Create more businesses / jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Generate more business contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Have a broader range of skills and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Become more confident in entrepreneurial abilities </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to test the commercial viability of their idea </li></ul><ul><li>Improve their employability </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Entrepreneurship Education and Training’ – Henry et al (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>For detailed research findings on the benefits of entrepreneurship education, please go to: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. Norway - Policy Documents for Entrepreneurship Education 2003: Policy instruments for an innovative industry (St.prp. nr. 51 2002- 2003) 2003: The Government’s plan for a holistic innovation policy 2004: The Government’s strategy plan for entrepreneurship in the educational system 2006: Knowledge Promotion (Kunnskapsløftet) (The latest reform in the 10- year compulsory school and in upper secondary education and training -> new national curriculum) 2006: Revised version of the Government’s strategy plan for entrepreneurship in the educational system 2008: An Innovative and Sustainable Norway (White paper: St.m nr. 7 2008-2009) 2009: Action plan for entrepreneurship in the educational system (August/September)
  7. 7. Norway - Coherent Plan <ul><li>Main Actors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of Education and Research, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of Trade and Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Goals of the Norwegian strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to develop knowledge and competences in students related to entrepreneurial activities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strengthen young people’s belief in and capabilities of their own creative forces, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foster a culture for entrepreneurship. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Entrepreneurial competence Entrepreneurial characteristics Entrepreneurial knowledge and skills <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Being innovative </li></ul><ul><li>Risk evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Perceive and utilize opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Build and utilize network </li></ul>Knowing how to develop an idea into practice and goal-oriented activities, e.g develop a business idea into a new business. In the educational system: Young Enterprise How can we stimulate entrepreneurial characteristics among youths? How can we stimulate entrepreneurial knowledge and skills among youths? Primary school University Definition
  9. 9. <ul><li>4 of 22 goals are achieved, another 10 are partly achieved </li></ul><ul><li>9 of 19 measures are implemented, another three are partly achieved </li></ul><ul><li>There has been increased cooperation between the educational institutions, business community, and local as well as national public sector </li></ul><ul><li>The strategy plan has had a positive effect on competence upgrading among teachers and schoolmasters, but we did not find this effect for the providers of teacher training </li></ul><ul><li>There are regional differences with regard to the number of pupils and teachers involved in entrepreneurship education </li></ul><ul><li>The strategy plan should have been higher prioritized by the Ministry of Education and Research as well as the Directorate for Education and Training </li></ul><ul><li>Young Enterprise was rated as the most important actor with regard to entrepreneurship education in Norway </li></ul>Norway - Conclusions from the Evaluation of the Government’s Strategy Plan
  10. 10. Norway - Recommendations for the Future <ul><li>Ensure continuity in the work that is already initiated </li></ul><ul><li>Continue the co-operation between the three involved ministries </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen the entrepreneurship competence among teachers/lectures and school managers </li></ul><ul><li>School-owners (county municipalities and local government) must acknowledge the importance of entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and disseminate textbooks and instruction manuals </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a resource bank to share best practices </li></ul><ul><li>Widen the knowledge-base through more research </li></ul><ul><li>Continue the support of Young Enterprise Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the strategy plan into an action plan with allocated budget </li></ul>
  11. 11. Government Reports Highlighting Need for Entrepreneurship Education <ul><li>Goodbody Report (2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The school system does not support the idea of working for yourself ” . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Irish education system was seen by entrepreneurs to have played a very limited role in supporting entrepreneurship to date”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Strategy Group (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial skills should be included in the syllabus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small Business Forum (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce entrepreneurship in the education system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Towards Developing an Entrepreneurship Policy in Ireland (2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full chapter on entrepreneurship education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building Ireland’s Smart Economy (2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed set of action points (page 72) on fostering entrepreneurship in the education system </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Current Position <ul><li>There is no integrated Entrepreneurship Education Policy despite repeated calls within Ireland and the EU </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of initiatives taking place across all sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Highly f ragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Lacking clear sense of purpose and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily left brain education (particularly with business students) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need to understand business </li></ul><ul><li>Need for co-ordinated approach </li></ul><ul><li>Need to correct false perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges to change include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget cutbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Education resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing new syllabii and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthy process </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Plan of Action <ul><li>Appoint a ‘Champion’ </li></ul><ul><li>Write an ‘Entrepreneurship Education Strategy’ </li></ul><ul><li>Include Field Research as a Portion of Business / Business Studies Subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce Multiple Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence Theory into SPHE </li></ul><ul><li>Utilise Discretionary Time in Primary Schools for Entrepreneurial Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Launch a Young Entrepreneur of the Year Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Establish School Awards </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an Entrepreneurship Education Online Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce Entrepreneurship into Teacher Training and DES In-Service Training </li></ul><ul><li>Implement the Recommendations of the EC for 3rd Level Students </li></ul><ul><li>Build a Foundation for Entrepreneurship Education </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint an Advisory Panel to Oversee the Implementation of this Proposal </li></ul>
  14. 14. Final Thought <ul><li>“ Some people look at things and say why; I see things that never were and say why not !” (G.B. Shaw) </li></ul>